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Footnoting

An American Studies writing assignment might require footnoting or endnoting, so students should always consult with their instructors about proper forms of documentation for any project.
In general, however, footnotes and/or endnotes should include the name of the author or authors (first name first), the full title (in italics, if it is a book, magazine, newspaper, journal, or film), the place of publication, the publisher, the date, and the relevant page numbers.
The first time you cite a source, give all the relevant information.

Thereafter, just provide the basics. For example:

A book.

1 Michael Kammen, A Season of Youth: The American Revolution and the Historical Imagination (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978), 76.

2 Kammen, A Season of Youth, 76.

A newspaper article.

3 James C. McKinley, Jr., "It Isn't Just a Game: Clues to Avid Rooting," New York Times, August 11, 2000, D5.

4 McKinley, "It Isn't Just a Game: Clues to Avid Rooting," D5.

An article in a popular magazine.

5 Mark Starr, "Blood, Sweat and Cheers," Newsweek, October 25, 1999, 43.

6 Starr, "Blood, Sweat and Cheers," 43.

An article in an academic journal.

7 George Elliott Howard, "Social Psychology of the Spectator," American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 18, No. 1 (July 1912): 46.

8 Howard, "Social Psychology of the Spectator," 46.

9 Edward R. Hirt, Dolf Zillmann, Grant A. Erickson and Chris Kennedy, "Costs and Benefits of Allegiance: Changes in Fans' Self-Ascribed Competencies After Team Victory Versus Defeat," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 63, No. 5 (1992): 724.

10 Hirt, et al, "Costs and Benefits of Allegiance," 724.

An essay in a book.

11 Clifford Geertz, "Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight," in The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: BasicBooks, 1973), 448.

12 Geertz, "Deep Play," 448.

A Web site.

13 "The Birth of a Nation," Sept. 13, 2000, <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0004972/> (Jan. 30, 2007).

That is, the name of the site, the date the material was put on the Web (if it can be determined), the full URL, and the date the site was accessed.


Further instructions regarding footnoting techniques can be found in The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., which is in Scribner Library at Z253 .U69 2003 (or see www.chicagomanualofstyle.org).

Remember: When in doubt always err on the side of over-citing material to avoid any suspicion of plagiarism.

Also noteworthy.

"Citation Resources"

"How do I?... Write an Annotated Bibliography"

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