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Red-figure vase, Athens

Classics Papers—Citations

This page outlines how to do in-line citations rather than footnotes. If you are working on a paper for a 300-level course, your instructor might require footnotes; consult with your instructor.

You should cite your sources:

You need not cite sources:

A Note on Punctuation

Place the citations within parentheses, with a space before the parenthesis and commas or periods only after the second parenthesis.  If you use a quotation, the end quotation mark goes before the citation.

Primary Sources

Cite the author, work and the standard method of referring to the passage. Cite your sources within parentheses. For appropriate abbreviations, consult the Oxford Classical Dictionary, ed. by S. Hornblower and A. Spawforth, 3rd ed. (Oxford, 1996 repr.), pp.ix-xxii or online at Perseus.

Vergil, Aeneid, book 4, lines 1–10: cite as (Ver. Aen. 4.1–10).

With authors who only have one work (e.g., Herodotus and Thucydides in Greek, Livy in prose), only the name of the author is necessary:

Herodotus, book 6, chapter 35, section 2: cite as (Hdt. 6.35.2).

For artwork, cite the author, year of publication and the figure in the text:

(Hurwit 2004, fig. 53).

If a primary source appears in a sourcebook, both the source and the sourcebook should be cited:

Plutarch, Life of Lykourgos, book 1, section 1 in Dillon and Garland, 2000, section 6, text 1: cite as (Plut. Lyk. 1.1 in Dillon and Garland 2000, 6.1)

Note that sourcebooks typically use a unique numbering system for each ancient text, and so you should cite them by the numbering system rather than the page number(s). 

Secondary Sources

For scholarship, provide the author, year of publication and the pages you are citing:

(Last Name Year, Page Number).

(Courtney 1982, 18).
(Favro 1992, 78–79).
(Hurwit 2004, 182).
(Schwab 2005, 169–170).
(Sear 1982, 56).

All secondary sources cited throughout your paper should also be listed in your Works Cited. Note that in line citations differ from bibliographic citations in a Works Cited page.