Faculty  Majors  Minors  Courses  Honors
Political Science Department

Skidmore College Fall 2005--Comparative Politics of Western Europe (GO 203)

TT 12:40-2:00 pm, Ladd 206

Prof. Ginsberg--Office Hours TT 9:00-9:30 am and 11:00 am-12:30 pm in Ladd 304
and by appointment, x5245, rginsber@skidmore.edu

Student Assistant: Joshua Hutchinson '06 (j_hutch@skidmore.edu); office hours TBA

Course Objectives

· introduce students to comparative politics as a subfield of political science to reveal similarities and differences between representative democracies and dictatorships and among representative democracies themselves;
· compare and contrast governments and politics in Britain, France, Germany, and selective other states, with focus on political culture/socialization/development, electoral system, political parties/interest groups, governmental institutions, and major political economy/social issues;
· examine the growing importance of the European Union to the domestic politics and national interests of its member-states;
· engage students in a better understanding of their own political system by comparing it to those of other states;
· sensitize students to common problems facing other advanced post-industrial democracies and, using the comparative method, weigh the merits of different policy responses to those problems;
· sharpen analytical, writing, and oral presentation skills; and
· prepare students for more advanced coursework in government and international affairs, participation in Model European Union, and/or careers in government, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector.

Course Requirements

(note: to assure fairness to all students there can be no late submissions of required work since deadlines are established in the syllabus)

· mid-term exam (20 percent) and final exam (25 percent);
· two five-page think pieces (10 percent each);*
· one 10-page comparative government paper (20 percent);*
· roundtables (five percent);
· active participation (10 percent) in discussion of required readings, responses to study/video questions, discussion of currents events in The Financial Times, The Economist, Bulletin Quotidien, and other current events websites provided, and regular class attendance (more than two unexcused absences lowers grade; more than two late arrivals to class also lowers grade).**

*See attached "Government Department Writing Statement" which describes the importance government professors place on your writing skills. ** See attached "Government Department Policy on Civility and Comportment in the Classroom." Participation in Go 203 incorporates the spirit and letter of this policy.

Required Texts

For Purchase

· David P. Conradt, The German Polity (Eighth Edition)
· Bill Jones and Dennis Kavanagh, British Politics Today (Seventh Edition)
· William Safran, The French Polity (Sixth Edition)

Distributed in Class-2-

· Patricia-Ann Lee, "England: An Unfinished Revolution," in Establishing Democracies
· Roy H. Ginsberg, Demystifying the European Union: Enduring Logic of Regional Integration
· Roy H. Ginsberg, "Germany in the Stream of Democracy," in Establishing Democracies

Required Current Events and Other Websites

Financial Times http://www.ft.com
New York Times www.nytimes.com
BBC World News http://news.bbc.co.uk/
The Economist http://economist.com

European Union http://europa.eu.int/index-en.htm

British Embassy http://britain-info.org/
10 Downing Street http://pm.gov.uk/output/Page1.asp
House of Commons http://www.parliament.uk/about_commons/about_commons.cfm
House of Lords http://www.parliament.uk/about_lords/about_lords.cfm
Conservative Election Manifesto http://conservatives.com/manifesto_index.cfm
Labour Election Manifesto http://labour.org.uk/manifesto
Liberal Democrats Manifesto http://liberal.org.uk/2001ge/manifesto.htm
British EU Presidency http://www.eu2005.uk

French Embassy http://info-France-usa.org/
French Government Institutions http://www.info-france-usa.org/atoz/governmt.asp
French Presidency http://www.elysee.fr/ang/pres/portr_.htm
French Prime Minister http://www.premier-ministre.gouv.fr/
French Constitutional Council http://www.conseil-constitutionnel.fr/langues/anglais/ang4.htm
French National Assembly http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/
French Senate http://www.senat.fr/

German Embassy http://germany-info.org/relaunch/index.html
German Federal Government http://germany-info.org/relaunch/politics/officials/cabinet.html\
German Presidency http://germany-info/org/relaunch/politics/officials/rau.html
Bundestag http://germany-info.org/relaunch/politics/officials/bundestag.html
Bundesrat http://germany-info.org/relaunch/politics/officials/bundesrat.html
Bundnis 90/Die Grunen (Greens) http://www.gruene-partei.de/rsvgn/rs_rubrik/0,,2491,00.htm
Social Democrats http://www.spdfraktion.de/cnt/rs/rs_rubrik/0,,1901,00.htm
Christian Democrats http://www.cdu.de/homepage.htm
German Political Development http://germany-info.org/relaunch/info/facts/questions_en/poldevelopment/parties1.html

Magna Carta http://www.bl.uk/collection/treasures/magnatranslation.html
United States Constitution http://www.ourconstitution.com/Const.html

Course Schedule

(please bring to class the reading assigned for that day)

Part One: Introduction to the Study of Comparative Politics and the European Union

Sept. 8 Why Compare Governments?
Sept. 13 The Concepts of Comparative Government. Conradt, preface/introduction; Jones,
introduction; Safran, preface; Ginsberg, Logic, preface and introduction.


Sept. 15 The Concepts of Comparative Government. Jones, Ch. 23; Ginsberg, Logic, Ch. 1, pp. 12-40 for historical background
Sept. 20 Political Culture and Development in Germany. Conradt, Ch. 1; and Appendix: The Basic Law of the Federal Republic; U.S. Constitution
Sept. 22 Political Culture and Development in Britain and France. Jones, Ch. 1-3; Safran, Ch. 1 and Appendix: French Constitution
Sept. 27 Primer on the European Union. Ginsberg, Logic, pp. 40-56 and pp. 143-157
Sept. 29 Primer on the European Union. Ginsberg, Logic, pp. 159-207
Oct. 4 No Class in Observance of Rosh Hashanah. Class rescheduled for Oct. 5
Oct. 5 Make-Up Class. Summary of Part One. Ginsberg, Logic, pp. 207-218

Part One Key Concepts

comparative politics political culture political socialization
political system political development geography in political development
presidential system nation, state, nation-state state sovereignty
parliamentary system head of government head of state
unitary and federal systems checks and balances electoral system (PR, SMD)
separation of powers political pluralism political party and interest group
regionalism national bureaucracy parliamentary supremacy
coalition government coup d'etat republic and monarchy
constitutional/absolute monarchy cabinet universal suffrage
judicial review vote of no confidence party manifesto
representative democracy political economy social contract
social democracy social movement market and social market economy
corporatism social market economy Keynesianism
neoliberalism political ideology political left, right, and center
nationalization and privatization structural unemployment European Union (+list members)
post-materialism unicameral/bicameral legislature democratic deficit
collapse of postwar settlement crisis of welfare state European Parliament
European Court of Justice European Council EU Council of Ministers
European Commission issue of Islam in Europe issue of economic competitiveness

Part Two: Germany

Oct. 6 Postwar Democratization and Political Economy. Ginsberg, Germany in the Stream of Democracy, entirety; Conradt, Chs. 2-3
Oct. 11 Political Parties and Interest Groups. Conradt, Chs. 4-5
Oct. 13 Elections and Electoral System. Conradt, Ch. 6
Oct. 18 Legislature and Executive. Conradt, Chs. 7-8
Oct. 20 German Federalism, Germany in the EU, and Prospects for the German Polity and Economy, Chs. 9-10. Deadline for consulting with Dr. G. about think piece choice and comparative government paper choice.
Oct. 25 Mid-term

Part Two Films
Fall of Berlin War
Germany: Portrait of a New Nation

Part Two Key Concepts
Bubonic Plague Thirty Years War/Peace of Westphalia Reformation
Holy Roman Empire Napoleonic War Wilhelm I and II


German Confederation of Rhine wars of German unification German Empire
German Confederation Zollverein Otto von Bismarck
Nazism pure proportional representation Weimar Republic
conflictual political culture Versailles war guilt/lost territory allied occupation
Second and Third Reich role of geography in political development militant democracy
Wannsee and Final Solution Bad Godesberg federalism/Lander
Nuremberg Laws FRG , GDR, German unification wirtschaftswunder
Basic Law & Articles 21, 23 Konrad Adenauer & Kurt Schumacher Bonn & Berlin Republics
social market economy rise/fall Berlin Wall mixed electoral system
Federal Constitutional Court reconciliation with France Social Democracy
constructive vote of no confidence German federalism and the Lander Christian Democracy
Head of Government and State FDP, CDU/CSU, SPD, PDS, Greens Bundestag, Bundesrat
Part Three: Britain

Oct. 27 Political Parties and Interest Groups, Jones, Chs. 4-5, 20. First Think Piece Due at Start of Class
Nov. 1 Elections and Electoral System. Jones, Chs. 6-10
Nov. 3 Legislature and Executive. Jones, Chs. 11-17
Nov. 8 Bureaucracy, Economy, and Local Government. Jones, Chs. 18-19, 21
Nov. 10 Relations with EU and Prospects for the British Polity and Economy. Jones, Ch. 22

Part Three Films

Hastings, 1066
Liberty: The Legacy of Magna Carta
The Civil War
Parliament at Work: Order, Order!

Part Three Key Concepts
Norman Conquest Magna Carta Glorious Revolution
King John William and Mary Charles I
Henry VIII acts of union with Scotland, Wales Industrial Revolution
Charles II and James II republic & restoration of monarchy Oliver Cromwell
Civil War absolute & constitutional monarchy Irish Statehood
question time backbenchers, whips, and MPs universal suffrage
Reform Act Benjamin Disraeli decolonization
Westminster and Whitehall cabinet government Suez Crisis
collective responsibility parliamentary sovereignty unwritten constitution
consensual political culture Buckingham Palace, 10 Downing Street official church
Thatcherism & New Labour role of geography in political development single member district
shadow minister/cabinet British Commonwealth standing alone WWII
ambivalence toward EU devolution Scottish National Party
Conservative Party Labour Party Liberal Democrats
Head of Government and State House of Commons and House of Lords primus inter pares

Part Four: France

Nov. 15 Political Culture and Political Economy. Safran, Chs. 2-3. Deadline for Consulting with Dr. G. on Second Think Piece.
Nov. 17 Political Parties, Interest Groups, Elections, and Electoral System. Safran, Chs. 4-5
Nov. 22 Legislature and Executive. Safran, Chs. 6-7
Nov. 29 Bureaucracy and Judiciary. Safran, Chs. 8-9
Dec. 1 Relations with the European Union and Prospects for the French Polity and Economy. Safran, Ch. 10. Second Think Piece Due at Start of Class.

Part Four Films
Paris Commune
Fall of France
Charles DeGaulle

Part Four Key Concepts
storming of the Bastille Estates-General Louis XIV
French Revolution Bourbon Dynasty (ancient regime) Louis XVI
First Empire Declaration of Rights of Man/Citizen Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleonic Wars Waterloo, restoration, Vienna, Aachen First & Second Republics
Third and Fourth Republics Second Empire Paris Commune
Paris Commune Louis Napoleon Bonaparte Franco-Prussian War
Louis-Philippe Maginot Line departement
Dreyfus Affair revanche and Alsace-Lorraine unitary system
grandes ecoles role of geography in political development dirigisme
conflictual political culture Vichy Regime, Petain, Resistance decolonization
Provisional Government Charles De Gaulle/Gaullism/Algeria crisis Fifth Republic
French exceptionalism French-Indochina War 1968 Riots/Strikes
French Community PS, RPR, UDF, FN, PCF, Greens semi-presidential system
Robert Schuman & Jean Monnet boycott of EEC & departure from NATO cohabitation
Quai d'Orsay, Matignon, Elysee Head of Government and Head of State Constitutional Council
two-round electoral system National Assembly and Senate Council of Ministers

Part Five: Comparative Government and Other European States

Dec. 6 Student Paper Presentations
Dec. 8 Roundtable One: The Future of the European Nation-State and the European Union
Dec. 13 Roundtable Two: The Value and Pitfalls of the Study of Comparative Politics. Course Conclusions and Evaluations.
Dec. 14 Study Session TBA
Dec. 21 Final Exam. Comparative Government Paper Due At Start of or Before Final Exam.

Instructions for Course Requirements

Key Concepts

Key concepts--typical in a good introductory survey course--are used as building blocks in the study of comparative politics. Key concepts help you build knowledge on which to undertake broader analysis. Each concept (or event, person) is linked either to the study of comparative politics or to the politics and government of a European state. Understanding the context of the concepts will greatly facilitate learning. For each concept, provide a brief definition, offer a date and an example when appropriate, and explain how the concept is relevant to the study of comparative politics. Students might want to set aside a section of their notebooks for a glossary or use note cards. Definitions will be found in readings/lectures. Dr. G. is available to review students' work on concepts before exams and will ask to see a sample of them well before the exams in order to offer feedback.

For concepts that are political parties, give founding date, key elements of manifesto, party leader, past party leader, prime minister/immediate past prime minister from that party, and electoral performance in the two most recent parliamentary elections. For governmental institutions, provide size of membership and full name of leader/party affiliation, and a comprehensive list of functions/powers. For heads of government and state, provide full names of current holders and immediate past holders, identify party affiliation of the current holder and coalition partners, and list functions and powers.


Think Pieces

This is a "think piece"—not a research paper—so be thought-provoking, persuasive, compelling, imaginative, creative, and pithy. Draw on what you have learned from readings, lectures, discussions, and videos to fashion response. Cite relevant source (Conradt: 45) in body of text as needed, but do not offer your reader a string of endnotes as this is your think piece. A sixth page may be used to list sources cited. Use evidence and dates/examples to back up what you write.

Students are encouraged either to write a think piece as early 21st. century American students of European government and politics or to choose a creative medium using an alter ego (or alter egos) to fashion a response, e.g., a dialogue between historical figures, an op ed piece in a newspaper, diary entries, a poem, a broadcast or print media interview, a letter, a memoir, a newspaper clipping, a speech, etc. If you write as an alter-ego, make sure to provide an editorial comment up front that explains the medium and a postscript that provides closure. Meet deadlines for consulting with Dr. G. with regard to your choice of think piece, how you plan to respond to the question, and for additional reading as needed.

Make certain the paper is cohesive, with a clear opening and a conclusion that links back to the introduction. The introduction should clearly state your main points and theme around which the body of the paper revolves. This demonstrates to the reader the clarity of your thought. Headings are recommended to provide structure. Limit scope of response to time period covered in course. Piece is a five-page (no more), typed paper (double-spaced), using proper spelling, grammar, sentence structure, format, paragraphs, margins, and print out. Paginate starting with page 2. Provide a title page with creative title/subtitle. Sample "A" quality think pieces available. Visit Writing Center for assistance.

Think Piece Options (first due on Oct. 27; second due on December 1)

With a few bloody exceptions dating back well over three hundred years ago, Britain's political development has been more evolutionary than revolutionary when compared to that of France and Germany. Why and how did Britain evolve over time from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy with parliamentary supremacy and a relatively consensual political culture?

How durable is the French Fifth Republic in its 47th year against the backdrop of a country which has had six monarchies and five republics in just over 200 years?

What is political socialization? Why is it an important concept of/analytical tool in comparative politics? How has your process of political socialization to date affected the way you view and act toward government and politics? (Or put yourself in the shoes of a European your age and ask the same.)

What are proportional representation and winner-take-all single member district electoral systems? How do they differ? Extol the virtues of either system—or a hybrid system that incorporates elements of each.

How durable is the Federal Republic of Germany in its 56th. year given what you learned of its fragmented political development and conflictual political culture?

What was the relationship between the Wirtschaftswunder and German democratization and the fortunes of the CDU/CSU in the 1950s-60s?

Why did political unification and liberal democracy arrive in Germany so much later than in the UK, France, and the United States?

Drawing on your study of three leading European nation-states, how do German, French, and British views on European integration compare and contrast, and why?


Evaluative Criteria Checklist for Successful Think Piece in GO 203

Style Substance
Title/Subtitle/Cover page __________ Response to Query __________
Provocative __________ Accuracy of Content __________
Compelling __________ Clear Introduction __________
Creative __________ Substantiation/Examples __________
Cohesion/Structure __________ Link Between Intro/End __________
Spelling/Grammar/Pagination __________ Citations as Needed __________
Margins/Clarity of Print Out __________ Citation Format __________
Page Length __________ Submitted on Time __________
Submitted Stapled __________ Consulted with RHG __________

Ten-Page Comparative Government Paper Due Before or at the Start of the Final Exam

Choose two European states (other than Germany, Britain, and France) and compare and contrast them in terms of either

(a) political culture, political development, political socialization, and political systems; or
(b) political parties, electoral systems, and recent elections; or
(c) a major political economy, environmental, or social issue (e.g., integrating Muslim populations);
(d) relations with, attitudes toward, and policies toward the European Union.

Write comparatively, state what the paper is about, introduce your findings, and make sure the conclusions link back to the introduction for closure. Make appointment with Barbara Norelli by October 15 to seek counsel on use of sources. You should cite at least six primary and secondary books and as many reputable online sources as you wish. For proper citation format, consult Skidmore Guide to Writing (found online via English Department homepage). Refer to source and page number in text in parentheses and provide full bibliography.

Evaluative Criteria Checklist for Successful Comparative Government Paper

Paper Title/Subtitle/Cover Page __________ Response to Query __________
Cohesion/Structure __________ Accuracy of Content __________
Spelling and Grammar __________ Clear Introduction __________
Margins/Clarity of Print Out __________ Clear Conclusion __________
Paragraphs/Page Numbers __________ Link Between Intro/End __________
Page Length __________ Substantiation/Examples __________
Proper Bibliography __________ Consulted with BN __________
Margins/Clarity of Print Out __________ Consulted with RHG __________
Double-Spaced __________ Overall Presentation __________
Page Length __________ Submit Stapled __________

Selective Video Study Questions

Adenauer (1996) 25 minutes

1. What did Adenauer do in the Weimar Republic? How did the Nazi regime treat him?
2. Why was Adenauer such a leading figure in the postwar democratization of Germany? On what basis did he have credibility after the war?
3. By what margin did the Christian Democrats win the 1949 parliamentary elections?


4. What impact did the Cold War and the Korean Conflict have on Germany and on Adenauer's Chancellorship in the 1950s?
5. What were Adenauer's views toward reconciliation with France and the ECSC in the 1950s and why?
6. Why did Adenauer hire a former Nazi as his chief of staff?
7. How many parliamentary elections were won for the Christian Democrats under Adenauer's leadership? When and why did he step down from office?
8. Why did Adenauer choose the city of Bonn as the temporary capital of the new Federal Republic of Germany?
9. What was Adenauer's role in creating the Franco-German Treaty of Friendship in 1963?
10. What was Adenauer's relationship with de Gaulle?
11. When did Adenauer die? Why is he considered the father of the Federal Republic?
12. Offer two questions with answers not already posed above.

Germany: Portrait of a New Nation (58 minutes) HC286.5.G47 1995

1. Why do Germans refer to the 1990 reunification as unification?
2. What impact did end of Cold War have on unification?
3. How difficult has it been for Germany to unify?
4. In your opinion should former STASI members be tried?
5. In what condition did the communists leave East Germany's environment, and why?
6. Devise and answer a question you wish to pose.

The Battle of Hastings: 1066 (36 minutes) D24 T87 1991 vol. 6 from
Turning Points in History


The English language, government, and law fundamentally changed when the Norman Duke William defeated the English King Harold in the Battle of Hastings. The Norman Conquest of 1066 marks the origins of the modern English polity and the bringing of French and European influences to the British isles: language, culture, politics, law, and commerce. No successive attempts to invade Britain by land and sea have succeeded. The consequences of the Norman invasion for modern Britain are thus critical and long lasting.

1. Who were the Vikings, where were they from, and what did they do to threaten and invade England and Europe?
2. Why did William of Normandy invade England?
3. What is the Bayeux Tapestry and what does it depict? From whose vantage point?
4. What were four major advantages of William and his forces compared to those of Harold?
5. What were four major effects of the defeat of the English King on the future of England?
6. What is a question you would like to pose? Provide answer for it as well.

Liberty: The Legacy of Magna Carta (10 minutes) DA 208 L5 1980


Eight hundred years ago, "The Great Charter" ushered in principles of equality before the law and restrictions on the absolute power of kings that are pillars on which rest all constitutions of representative democracies today.

1. What was feudalism and how did King John's ruthlessness, failure in foreign wars, and increases in taxes spur a revolt by the Barons and Churchmen against him?
2. What happened at "Runnymede" in 1215 that forced King John to agree to limit his powers?

3. What were three examples of demands on the King to limit his powers?
4. What is the significance of Magna Carta for subsequent political development in Britain and five centuries later in America for both the colonists when they arrived on our shores and for the founders of the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution?

The Civil War in England, 1645-49 (35 minutes) DA415.C58 1990

A split between Charles Stuart, King of the United Kingdom, and the House of Commons occurred in the 1640s. Deputies in the Commons refused to support the King's arbitrary powers, including taxation without representation. Charles had not convened parliament for eleven years and when he needed to convene parliament to seek new resources to fight a war against the Scots, the House of Commons refused to approve funds. Charles believed in his divine right to rule. Members of Parliament (MPs) in the House of Commons, mostly the newly rich middle class elected by property owners, contested the tyranny of the King. Members of the House of Lords, the upper house which consisted of bishops and peers, were not elected but appointed or inherited their seats.

Oliver Cromwell, a deputy in the House of Commons, organized the parliamentary insurrection against the Crown. The House of Commons passed legislation in 1640 that placed limits on how much the King could tax and spend independent of Parliament and established that Parliament had the right to be convened at least once every three years and could not be dismissed without its own consent.

1. Why was there widespread opposition to Charles in the 1640s? Give at least three explanations?
2. Why did Charles have money problems?
3. Why did Charles try to use force against Parliament? What happened when he did?
4. What were two key differences between the King's army and Cromwell's army?
5. When, why, and how was Charles defeated and what happened to him and why?
6. What form of government did Britain have under Cromwell's rule?
7. When, how, and under what conditions did Britain become a constitutional monarchy after the
death of Cromwell?
8. What is the significance of the English Civil War to the political development of the UK?
9. What key issues were present in the 1640s that were visited earlier in 1215 and why?

Charles lost the civil war and was beheaded. Cromwell led an authoritarian republic government for eleven years. After his death, the Stuart monarchy was restored under Charles II in 1660. However, the institution of the monarchy was never the same. The monarch would not serve as the result of a naturally derived divine right but rather would be held accountable to the parliament. The year 1660 ushered in the rise of parliamentary government. Charles II was followed by James II, who tried to restore the rights and powers lost by Charles I. In the Glorious Revolution of 1688 James II was forced to abdicate in bloodless revolution. In 1689, Parliament asked William and Mary (daughter of James II) to rule. William and Mary consented, thus establishing the precedence of parliamentary supremacy over the crown.

British Parliament at Work: Order, Order! (60 minutes) JN508.07 1994

1. Why were the monarch and parliament in conflict with each other?
2. What is Britain's electoral system?
3. How often are parliamentary elections held?
4. What are three traditions of the House of Commons?
5. What are the tasks of the Speaker of the House?
6. Why do MPs take an oath of office to the Queen?
7. Do Cabinet officers hold seats in Parliament? Explain. How does this compare to the U.S.?
8. What are three roles performed by MPs?
9. Who are the Lords, how do they become Lords, and what do they do?
10. What are three checks the parliament has over the government?
11. How does a proposed bill become law? List steps.

12. How does parliament differ from the U.S. Congress?

The Paris Commune: 1871 (30 minutes) D24.T87 1991 v.5

1. Who were the communards and why were they fighting the government?
2. What were the strains among Parisians prior to 1870 that exposed interclass divisions during the
3. What was the impact of the end of the Franco-Prussian war on the Parisians?
4. What was wrong with the regime of Napoleon III? How did he and his regime fall?
5. What regime replaced Napoleon III? Why did its army fight the Commune?
6. Why and how did Bismarck humiliate Paris and what were the effects?
7. At what price did the French army retake Paris?
8. What does the Paris Commune tell us about French politics today?

France Falls: May-June 1940
(52 minutes) Vol. Three from the World at War Series D743.W67 1980

1. How did France's World War I victory affect French attitudes in the run up to World War II?
2. Describe politics and government in the Third Republic before the outbreak of World War II.
3. What was the Maginot Line and how well did it work once war broke out?
4. Why didn't France extend the Maginot Line across the border with Belgium to the Channel? What were the repercussions for France?
5. Why was French military thinking totally defensive? What were the implications of a largely defensive posture during the German invasion of Poland?
6. Why did France withdraw from its early, though modest, offensive into Germany at the start of the war?
7. What impact did the "phony war" have on French soldiers in winter 1939?
8. Why was the French chief of staff's headquarters located outside of Paris with no phone communication with the government in Paris?
9. Why didn't the French prepare for a German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg, and France through the Ardennes Mountains?
10. What was France's response to the German offensive through the Ardennes in May 1940?
11. How did French troops perform in May 1940 compared to 1914?
12. How many people were in movement in northern France in May-June 1940?
13. Why did the Germans push toward the Channel in June 1940?
14. What was the significance of Hitler's order to use the same train carriage for the signing of the armistice signaling the defeat of France in June 1940 as the French used for the signing of the armistice that signaled the defeat of Germany in 1918?
15. What was the significance of the parade of victorious German troops through Paris in June 1940 that followed the same route as the parade of victorious French troops in 1918?
16. How long did it take for Germany to defeat France in 1940? What is the significance of this?
17. How long was the German occupation of France?
18. What happened to the Third Republic?
19. What impact do you think the French defeat and the German occupation had on French political culture and development during and after World War II? What are the enduring effects?


Roy H. Ginsberg is Professor of Government at Skidmore College in Saratoga Springs. He teaches international and comparative politics, international political economy, and the politics and economics of European integration. He has been Director of Skidmore's International Affairs Program, Glaverbel Chair in European Politics at Catholic University of Louvain, Visiting Professor at the Center for European Studies at New York University and the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Visiting Fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Fulbright Research Fellow at the Centre for

European Policy Studies, and Research Fellow in European Integration at the European Commission. Professor Ginsberg co-founded and chaired the European Union Studies Association of the United States.

He received his Ph.D. in Political Science from The George Washington University and was an analyst in various federal agencies, including the Foreign Agricultural Service, the Office of Management and Budget, and the International Trade Commission.

Professor Ginsberg has submitted testimony on transatlantic relations for the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology and the House Foreign Affairs Committee. He has conducted numerous briefings and workshops on EU politics and EU-United States relations for the State Department's Office of Policy Planning, Office of the Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, and U.S. Information Service, and for other federal foreign policy agencies.

He is author of Foreign Policy Actions of the European Community: The Politics of Scale; Ten Years of European Union Foreign Policy: Baptism, Confirmation, Validation; The European Union in International Politics: Baptism by Fire; and Demystifying European Union: The Enduring Logic of Regional Integration; and coauthor of European Union-United States Relations in the 1990s: The Elements of Partnership and The United States and the European Union in the 1990s: Partners in Transition. Professor Ginsberg speaks regularly on transatlantic relations in Europe and the United States and is a consultant to U.S. government agencies on European Union affairs, European Union institutions and member governments on transatlantic relations, and to U.S. universities on international studies education. He is currently Co-Director of a $175,000 grant from the United States Department of Education to support the development of the curriculum in international affairs at Skidmore College.