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Political Science Department

Skidmore College Spring 2003

International Political Economy and the Environment (GO 339)—MWF 9:05-10:00 am

Prof. Ginsberg--Office Hours TT 11:15 am-12:45 pm in Ladd 304—x5245—rginsber@skidmore.edu

Course Objectives

· explore changes in international politics that lend more weight to economic and environmental considerations;
· introduce/critique contending theories and key concepts of international political economy;
· identify/examine major international commercial, monetary, and environmental problems
and issues and their sources;
· evaluate processes of regional economic integration in relationship to the global political economy;
· compare/contrast foreign economic/environmental policies of key state and nonstate players;
· examine/recommend solutions to problems in the global political economy and environment;
· sharpen writing, policy analysis, debating, oral presentation, and library research skills;
· probe the possibilities of, and limits to, cooperation among international actors attempting to
address problems in international economics and the global environment; and
· prepare students for graduate work or careers in international affairs or international environmental studies and/or participation in Model European Union or Model United Nations.

Course Requirements

· one 20-page research paper with presentation (40 percent)—offers advanced research, research design, conceptual, methodological, and writing skills needed for graduate study and/or careers in the public or private sectors, including international and nongovernmental organizations
· two short-answer/concept/current events quizzes (20 percent at 10 percent each)—captures student learning of key material
· two-page policy briefs on pressing issues in international political economy/environment (20 percent at 10 percent each)—offers practical experience of distilling/organizing knowledge and offering solutions to decisionmakers
· class participation, responses to assigned study questions for readings, videos, guest speakers, and current events and participation in scheduled roundtables (20 percent)—makes concrete what students learn

Required Texts and Newspaper

· Lairson and Skidmore, International Political Economy: The Struggle for Power and Wealth
· Steel et al., Environmental Politics and Policy: A Comparative Approach
· The Financial Times

Lectures, Reading Assignments, Videos, Speakers, Roundtables, and Student Presentations
(bring book and the FT to class each day)

Part One: Introduction to International Political Economy

1-22 Welcome to the Course. Receive syllabus; handouts; subscription forms to the FT

1-24 What is IPE? Lairson, Ch. 1; glossary, acronyms, and IPE websites,pp. 461-477

1-27 International Economics. Lairson, Ch. 2

1-29 History of the IPE. Lairson, Ch. 3


1-31 History of the IPE. Handout.

2-3 The U.S. and the IPE: 1938-1971. Lairson, Ch. 4 (pp. 72-89)

2-5 The U.S. and the IPE Since 1971. Lairson, Ch. 4 (pp. 89-96)

2-7 Globalization, Lairson, Ch. 5

2-10 Competition and Conflict Among Advanced Industrialized States. Lairson, Ch. 7

2-12 North-South Economic Relations. Lairson, Ch. 8

2-14 South-South Economic Relations. Lairson, Ch. 9

2-17 Foreign Investment and Economic Development. Lairson, Ch. 10

2-19 Multinational Corporations and Economic Development. Lairson, Ch. 11

2-21 Debt in Developing Countries. Lairson, Ch. 12. Individual Student-Professor Consultations on Paper Topics.

2-24 Video International Economic Law (study questions due 2-26)

2-26 Regional Economic Integration. Catch up on current events.

2-28 Roundtable on Issues in the International Political Economy. Lairson, Ch. 14

3-3 First Policy Brief Due. Presentations of Policy Briefs.

3-5 Presentations of Research Topics/Hypotheses

3-7 First Quiz.

Part Two: Introduction to the Global Environment

3-10 Introduction to International Environmental Politics and Policy. Lairson, Ch. 13; Steel, glossary, acronyms, and websites, pp. 282-303

3-12 Science and Policy. Steel, Ch. 2

3-14 Individual Student-Professor Consultations on First Chapter.

3-24 Video EU-U.S. Relations: Extraordinary Partners (study questions due 3-31)

3-26 Video Global Concerns (study questions due 3-31)

3-28 Research Day

3-31 Environmental Policies in Developed Countries. Steel, Chs. 3-4

4-2 Environmental Policies in Developing Countries. Steel, Ch. 5

4-4 First Chapter Due. Presentations of First Chapter.


4-7 Environmental Policies in Post-Communist Countries. Steel, Ch. 6

4-9 International Environmental Law. Steel, Ch. 7

4-11 Individual Student-Professor Consultations on Empirical Chapters.

4-14 Roundtable on International Environmental Issues. Steel, Ch. 7

4-16 Second Policy Brief Due. Presentations of Policy Briefs.

4-18 Second Quiz

Part Three: Student Presentations and Evaluation

4-21 Paper Presentations. Drafts of Empirical Chapters Due.

4-23 Paper Presentations. Drafts of Empirical Chapters Returned.

4-25 Paper Presentations.

4-28 Closing Roundtable on IPE and Global Environmental Issues.

TBA Final Submissions Due at Start of Exam Period Scheduled for GO 339

Key Concepts

Key concepts are used as building blocks in the study of European integration and are listed for each reading/lecture. If you first understand the context of the concepts, it will greatly facilitate learning and remembering. For each concept, you must provide a brief definition, offer a date and an example when appropriate, and explain how the concept is relevant to the study or practice of European integration. Students may wish to reserve a section in their notebooks for a glossary or use note cards. Definitions are found in readings and covered in lectures. Prof. G. is available to review students' work on concepts before exams. Each exam has an identification section and a short-answer section. The identification section usually asks you to identify 10 out of 15 or 15 out of 20 concepts. The short-answer section usually asks students to respond to three out of five or five out of seven questions.

Key Concepts for Part One (International Political Economy)

IPE History feudalism, agricultural revolution, Enclosure Movement, repeal of Corn Laws, transportation revolution, industrial revolution, mercantilism, urbanization, colonialism, imperialism, rise of modern nation-states, Cobden-Chevalier Treaty, nationalism, chauvinism, beggar-thy-neighbor, Great Depression, isolationism, economic nationalism, trade protectionism, competitive depreciation, arms race, Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, Bretton Woods System, trade liberalization, gold standard, dollar convertibility, Dawes Plan, dollar glut, collapse of Bretton Woods, Marshall Plan, Kennedy Round of MTNs, oil cartel actions, NIEO, North-South Dialogue, collapse of communism

IPE Theories/Thinkers IPE, relationship of economic conditions to political stability, Great Depression versus the Wirtschaftswunder, liberalism, capitalism, Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, David Ricardo, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels,

Communist Manifesto, mercantilism, Marxism, Radicalism, dependency theory, modernization theory, communism, socialism, John Maynard Keynes, Keynesianism, customs union theory, hegemonic stability theory

IPE Concepts GDP, fiscal policy, monetary policy, exchange rates, relationship between exchange rates and trade flows, balance of payments, balance of trade, budget deficit, tariff, NTB, export subsidies, trade liberalization, economies of scale, free trade, market economy, social market economy, command economy, postindustrial societies, postcommunist societies, globalization, indicators of financial globalization, consequences of financial globalization, sources of globalization of production, consequences of globalization of production, complex interdependence, hegemony, relative versus absolute decline, interest rate, multinational corporation, comparative advantage

IPE Institutions GATT, WTO, IMF, IBRD (World Bank), UNCTAD, UNDP, OPEC, G-77, Group of 8

IPE Practices and Issues IMF conditionality, ODA, MFN, GSP, GMOs, GMFs, Chinese accession to WTO, Uruguay Round of MTNs, Doha Round, convertibility, fixed and floating exchange rates, antidumping and countervailing duties, fast track, exchange rates, Maquiladora, Zaibatsu/Keiretsu, human development index, strategies for development, export-led industrialization, import substitution industrialization, explanations for Japan's economic growth and weakness, MITI, Japanese, European, and American approaches to competitiveness, NICs, Four Tigers, development gap, strategies for foreign assistance, effective and ineffective foreign aid, benefits and costs of FDI, third world debt, debt relief, origins of third world debt crisis, anti-globalization movement, pros and cons of globalization, interdependence, Robert Zoellick, Pascal Lamy

Regional Economic Integration regional economic integration, free trade area, customs union, common
market, monetary union, EU, ECB, EMU, Growth and Stability Pact, convergence criteria, Euro, EU enlargement, problems in the EU economy, CAP, NAFTA, FTAA, MERCOSUR, Andean Pact, Amazon Pact, Caribbean Community, Gulf Cooperation Council, ASEAN, APEC

Key Concepts for Part Two (International Environment)

International Environmental
Concepts environment, Garrett Hardin's tragedy of the commons, sustainable development, ozone depletion, global warming, carbon dioxide, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), ozone depleting substances, loss of biodiversity, precautionary principle, CFCs, biological globalization, biotechnology, collective (environmental) goods, ecology, ecosystem, ecofeminism, ecolabeling, comparative approach to the study of the IPE, driving forces of environmental politics, Green parties, dominant social and new environmental paradigms, Thomas Kuhn, Green Revolution, postmaterial values


International Environmental
Organizations, Conferences,
And Law UNEP, World Bank/IMF/WTO and environmental issues, environmental NG0s, Brundtland Commission, Rio Earth Summit (UNCED), Rio Declaration, Agenda 21, UN Convention on Climate Change, the Convention on Biological Diversity, Basel Convention on Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment, Montreal Protocol, Kyoto Protocol, environmental IGOs, international environmental law

International Environmental
Issues global climate change, desertification, deforestation, freshwater degradation, marine environment degradation, nuclear energy, Chernobyl, Temelin, Bhopal, WMD and the environment, environmental security, environmental terrorism, trade in "conflict diamonds," ivory, and whale meat, Three Gorges Dam, food safety issues, genetically modified foods, global water shortage, emissions trading, HIV crisis. Thomas Robert Malthus, population growth, impact of population growth on the environment, depletion of fisheries, ecosystem management, deep ecology, market-based approaches to the environment, green taxes


Students are expected to bring the text to class each day, arrive on time prepared to discuss reading assignments, and submit responses to study questions as assigned for readings, videos, guest speakers, and current events. Students report to class on current events articles (from The Financial Times) germane to their paper topics and policy briefs. Students participate in scheduled roundtable discussions (see below). More than two unexcused absences will result in reductions from the participation grade. If students cannot make class, for whatever reason, they are required to let the instructor know in advance. Since late arrivals to class are disruptive, students are asked to arrive on time. Turn off cell phones before class starts.


A roundtable discussion is a group of participants, led by a moderator, which focuses discussion around a specific preassigned set of questions/themes. The discussion starts with an introduction of the participants and a summary of the issue or problem to be discussed followed by a tour de table at which time each individual speaks briefly (4-5 minutes each or more depending on class size). This is followed by a general discussion. The roundtable ends when the moderator asks each participant to summarize her/his main points (4-5 minutes each).

Evaluative Criteria Checklist for Successful Roundtable

Style Substance

Clarity of Thought __________ Quality of Responses __________
Delivery __________ Preparation __________
Confidence __________ Substantiation __________
Creativity __________ Organization __________
Persuasiveness __________ Quality of Key Points __________
Eye Contact __________


Video Study Questions

Seton Hall Law School video International Economic Law (30 minutes)

1. What are the three major areas of international economic law?
2. When and where did international commercial law first develop?
3. What is a tariff? What is a quota?
4. What was the GATT? When was it founded? What did it do? What were its objectives?
5. When and how did the GATT change into the WTO?
6. How does the WTO strengthen international trade dispute resolution over the GATT?
7. What is NAFTA, when was it established, and what are its primary objectives?
8. Why is NAFTA viewed as a landmark and a model in international economic relations?
9. What is the EU, when was it established, and what are its objectives?
10. What is the significance for the EU of the landmark trade case considered by the European Court of Justice in 1964?
11. What is UNCITRAL and what does it do? Give three examples.
12. What is IMF conditionality?
13. What is the World Bank's primary goal?
14. Why is the international monetary system important for international trade?
15. What is FDI? Why is it important to have international legal protection for FDI?
16. What is the Basel Process?
17. Why is international economic law expanding and through what means is it expanding?

Seton Hall Law School video Global Concerns (28 minutes)

1. What was the first principle of international environmental law and when was it established?
2. What is the "precautionary principle" of international environmental law?
3. What is the "good neighborliness principle" of international environmental law?
4. What was the significance of the 1972 UN Conference on the Environment at Stockholm?
5. What is the UN Environment Program (UNEP) and what does it do?
6. What is the principle source of international environmental law?
7. What is the Montreal Protocol and what is its most tangible contribution to the environment?
8. How and why did the 1992 UN Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio usher in a new phase of international environmental law?
9. What is the relationship between environmental degradation and human rights?
10. What is the UN Law of the Sea (UNLOS) Treaty, when did it come into force, and what are its chief legal provisions with regard to territorial waters, the high seas, and the environment?
11. What is the UN Development Program (UNDP) and what does it do?
12. What is the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and what does it do?

Extraordinary Partners: The U.S. and the EU (20 minutes)

1. Are Americans as ignorant about Europe as portrayed by the film producer? Explain.
2. What did President Clinton say about U.S. support for the EU?
3. How did the Marshall Plan help postwar Western Europe?
4. What was the plan to integrate the French and German economies proposed by Monnet and supported by Schuman and Adenauer?
5. What were the two main goals of the Maastricht Treaty?
6. Why is it in the interest of the US to support the EU? Be specific? Do you agree?
7. How closely intertwined are the US and EU economies?
8. Given that the film was produced by the EU, to what extent do you think the writers revealed bias in favor of Europe? What did you like and dislike about the film and why? What would you change?


Policy Briefs

A policy brief, a formal document, is a two-page briefing paper written by an expert for the benefit of a decisionmaker. The expert reduces the complexity of an issue to its core elements, presents policy options or scenarios on which decisionmakers may base their final determination, and assesses the benefits/costs associated with each option. Decisionmakers, whether governmental, nongovernmental, or business, are too busy to do their own background research; they depend on concise policy briefs from analysts as they consider, then decide on, policy choices. Preparing briefing papers is a skill worth having whether you work in the future for a chief executive officer of a multinational corporation (or become a CEO!), the head of an NGO, a member of Congress, your state governor, or the Secretary of State. In your policy brief very briefly explain the policy problem and its origins; offer two or three policy options for action in response to the problem; and explain the benefits/costs associated with the outcome of each option.

Your briefing paper should be two-pages maximum, exclusive of cover page. It should be double-spaced typed with flawless grammar, sentence structure, spelling, margins (at least one inch), use of paragraphs, and clear print-out (in other words, a visually clean presentation). A cover page in memorandum format (see below) should include the name of your assigned alter-ego. If you wish, use headings/subheadings to distinguish among the parts of the policy briefing. Since this is not a research document, endnotes should be avoided unless you are drawing directly on specialized knowledge and the specific work done by others. If so, refer to the source in body of text and consult with Dr. G. ahead of time. PUT YOUR OWN NAME ON THE BACK OF THE LAST PAGE OF YOUR POLICY BRIEF. Finally, of the two policy options papers, reserve one for the U.S. Government and the other for a foreign government.


To: William Jefferson Clinton, President of the United States

From: Sandy Berger, National Security Advisor to the President

Re: Environmental Terrorism

Date: Date

Following your request, attached find the briefing paper on environmental terrorism in the aftermath of the attempted smuggling of illicit chemical substances into the United States in December 1999, and choices facing the Administration in the months ahead. This paper draws on expertise gleaned from input from the Departments of Energy, Defense, and State, the Federal Bureau of Investigations, and the Central Intelligence Agency.

Evaluative Criteria Checklist for Successful Policy Brief

Style Substance

Submitted on time __________ Concise intro of policy problem __________
Organization/structure __________ Clear list of options up front __________
Creativity __________ Logical sequence of options __________
Effectiveness __________ Clear explanation of each option __________
Proper cover/ memo format __________ Pros/cons or costs/benefits of ea. __________
Within two-page limit __________ Authenticity of options __________
Spelling/grammar __________
Pagination/margins __________
Quality of print out __________
Use of full names/titles __________
of sender/recipient

Research (or Honors) Paper

In close consultation with Prof. G., select/analyze an issue of international political economy or the global environment of keen interest to you, ideally one that will put you in the direction you desire for employment or graduate/law/business school. Skills associated with research design and methodology, writing, research, argumentation, support of a thesis, developing a framework for analysis, and the expertise gathered in a substantive policy (or theoretical) area are indispensable skills no matter where your post-graduate career takes you.

Consult Appendices I and II in LSI reader for all format/style rules. Avoid use of the first person. Visit the Writing Center for assistance. See models of excellent research papers in Dr. G's office from GO 301 students in past years. The highly polished, well-documented 20-page paper (30 pages for honors) must have a formal cover page (see sample below); a table of contents, indicating page numbers for each chapter and each heading/subheading; a bibliography; endnotes (no footnotes at the bottom of each page and no source or author citations in text); excellent spelling, grammar, sentence structure, use of paragraphs, print-out, and margins (one inch); appendices as needed; and at least ten sources cited as endnotes, four of which must be primary (a roughly even mix of online and in-library sources is the norm; consult with Dr. G. on the mix of sources suitable for your project and the proper format for bibliographic citation of online sources). Honors students have twelve sources, five of which must be primary.

The paper must have a useful framework for analysis that allows the writer to embed her/his thesis or central theme/questions in a specific approach and design. The paper revolves around either a thesis, central theme, or set of central questions (honors students do thesis). It may be policy-oriented or theoretical. Students work closely with Dr. G. on the framework most suitable to their projects and needs.

Deadlines. Students are graded for each stage of the completion of their project as outlined below.

First Deadline: 2-21 Consult with Dr. G. on preliminary topic proposal; begin literature search

Second Deadline: 2-26 Submit one paragraph topic proposal, indicating significance/importance

Third Deadline: 3-5 Present Topics/Hypotheses to Class

Fourth Deadline: 3-10 Submit brief list of preliminary central questions, accompanied by an explanation of why each is significant/worthy of attention. Those writing an honors thesis, submit hypothesis. Complete literature search.

Fifth Deadline: 3-14 Consult with Dr. G. on First Chapter (conceptualization). Submit/present preliminary sentence outline depicting how paper will be organized into its component parts (see models below); indicate/justify the framework for analysis chosen after having closely consulted with Dr. G.

Sixth Deadline: 3-31 Submit list of bibliographic sources

Seventh Deadline: 4-2 Submit final draft of sentence outline and annotated bibliography (see models)

Eighth Deadline: 4-4 Submit/present draft of Chapter One

Ninth Deadline: 4-11 Consult with Dr. G. on empirical chapters.

Tenth Deadline: 4-21 Drafts of Empirical Chapters Due in Class. Final Paper Presentations Begin.

Eleventh Deadline: 5-7 Final Drafts Due at Start of the Exam Period for GO 339 or before. No exceptions.

Evaluative Criteria Checklist for Successful Research Paper

Preparation and Style Substance

Met All Ten Deadlines ____________ Thesis/Theme Up Front ____________
Formal Cover Page ____________ Central Questions ____________
Creative Title/Subtitle ____________ Rationale/Significance ____________
Table of Contents ____________ Clear/Engaging Intro. ____________
Bibliography/correct format ____________ Time Frame ____________
Endnotes/correct format ____________ Structure ____________
Grammar/Sentence Structure ____________ Framework of Analysis ____________
Paragraphs and Spelling ____________ Methodology ____________
Clarity of Font/Print-Out ____________ Flow of Chapters ____________
Margins and Pagination ____________ Substantiation ____________
Appendices as Needed ____________ Conclusions/link back ____________
Page Length ____________ Sources ____________

Below is Model of a Proper Cover Page (must be spread out over entire page)




(or for honors)

Generic Research Paper Outline (provide paper title and subtitle)

Table of Contents (in draft form, this is your paper outline)

Chapter One (the conceptual chapter)
A. Thesis Statement or Central Theme and Rationale (thesis required for honors)
B. Significance of Topic; Timeliness
C. Time Frame with Rationale
D. Framework for Analysis with Rationale
E. Literature Review (for honors only)
F. Structure of Paper

Chapters Two, Three, and Four (the empirical chapters)



Example No. One Example No. Two
Chapter Two Chapter Two
A. Introduction A. Introduction
B. Case Study or Level of Analysis B. Central Question or Historical Period
C. Conclusion/Lead in to next Chapter C. Conclusion/Lead in to next Chapter

Chapter Five (synthesis chapter that bridges the conceptual and empirical chapters and links the thesis or theme with the conclusions)
A. relate conceptual and empirical chapters to conclusions
B. reconfirm significance/timeliness
C. justify framework of analysis
D. offer prescriptions/future scenarios

Ginsberg Lecture on the Evolution of the International Political Economy from 1750: A Thumbnail Sketch

PreIndustrial Period (Middle Ages-1750)
· existence of agrarian economy based on feudal order
· Bubonic Plague (14th. century) broke hierarchical structure of medieval Europe, provoked economic change
· Hanseatic League (14th.-16th. centuries) established pan-European trading order
· Renaissance (14th-16th. centuries) opened Europe to world; began to break down feudal order
· rise of mercantilism (1550-1750)—the international economic system of states that actively traded in preindustrial products (precious metals) and sought colonies to further trade goals; governments subsidized/supported privileged firms to attain export markets
· Enclosure Movement (16th. century) forced migration of peasants to cities, creating large urban pool of workers later to be employed during the Industrial Revolution
· Thirty Years War (1618-1648) splintered Christianity, ended Holy Roman Empire (800-1648)
· Peace of Westphalia (1648) marked rise of secular/sovereign states
· Agricultural Revolution (1650-1750) introduced advanced techniques to British farm economy

Early Industrial Period (1750-1913)
· Industrial Revolution (1750s),which began in England and spread to continent, enabled Britain to establish hegemony (a preponderance of power) in international economic system from 1750-1913
· development of industries, factories, urbanization; environmental damage followed
· opening up of the new world for purposes of colonization, imperialism, exploitation
· American Revolution (1776) and French Revolution (1789) marked rise of modern nation-state and nationalism; Italian and German national unification 1860s-70s followed
· feudalism ended in France in 1790s and Russia in 1860s; slavery ended in U.S. South in 1865
· advent of transportation revolution in early 19th. century (rail, sea)
· laissez-faire capitalism replaced mercantilism (18th. century): Adam Smith wrote Wealth of Nations; socioeconomic classes formed that created new divisions later criticized by the socialists
· repeal of the Corn Laws in Britain (1846) lifted restrictions on agricultural imports (thus eased exports of British manufactures)—freed up international trade through end of 19th. century
· Anglo-French Cobden-Chevalier Treaty (1860) decreased tariffs


· United States remained in "splendid isolation," pursued "manifest destiny" until WWI
· Marx and Engels' severe critique of capitalism based on exploitative/wretched conditions of the proletariat (19th. century) and imperialism : Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital
· industrial and transport revolutions made more deadly the technologies of war (Civil War, Crimean War, WWI)

Late Industrial Period: 1914-1974
· late 19th. century commercial rivalries and arms races among European powers paved road to WWI; economic nationalism and trade protectionism ensued in 20 years before outbreak of WWI
· Bolshevik Revolution (November 1917) led by Lenin attempted to put a revised Marxist doctrine into practice (Marxism-Leninism) for first time; experiment in communism collapsed in 1989-91
· World War I (1914-1918) weakened European powers/began era of U.S. economic hegemony; Versailles Treaty imposed punitive damages on Germany yet failed to integrate Germany into a stable peace order; Lend Lease; Dawes Plan
· IPE in interwar years was unstable/marred by Depression, economic nationalism, trade protectionism (Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act), competitive depreciation, and isolationism. League floundered; German Depression eased Hitler's rise to power
· World War II (1939-45) ushered in era of U.S. hegemony in international economic system
· postwar international economy system launched at Bretton Woods (1944) promoted principle of multilateral liberal world trade (GATT), monetary stability based on supremacy/convertibility of dollar, and fixed exchange rates (IMF), and economic reconstruction /development (World Bank)
· Marshall Plan and European Recovery Program provided U.S. aid to rebuild war-torn Europe: largest transfer of resources from one region to another in world history
· U.S multinational corporations invested heavily in Europe with long-term implications
· UN (1945) stymied by advent of Cold War; GATT began rounds of multilateral trade negotiations that reduced international tariffs from an average of 50 percent in 1950s to 5 percent in 1990s;
· creation of European Coal and Steel Community and European Economic Community in 1950s began process of postwar European economic and monetary integration; Council on Mutual Economic Assistance was the Soviet-dominated economic integration project in the East (collapsed in 1989)
· decolonization (1948-1977) marked end of European domination of colonies; led to creation of UNCTAD/G-77 and LDCs' demands for new international economic order, North-South Dialogue
· breakdown of Bretton Woods international monetary system (by 1971-73) resulted in floating exchange rates and end of dollar convertibility into gold; gave rise to the European Monetary System (1979), Economic and Monetary Union (1998)
· 1973-74 oil cartel price hikes/embargo revealed power of developing countries over rich North; caused inflation/recession; provoked conservation efforts/search for alternative sources of energy

Post-Industrial Period, 1970s-present
· growing importance of trade in services relative to trade in industrial goods: smokestack v. sunrise
· growing power and importance of MNCs and NGOs
· impact of technology on capital flows
· charges of neocolonialism by LDCs leveled at developed states
· rise of advanced developed countries
· decline of U.S. hegemony (declinists versus nondeclinists); post-hegemonic stability
· rising importance of NTBs, product standards as new generation of trade restrictions
· debates over the future of the postwar multilateral liberal world trade order
· burst of Japanese economic bubble
· collapse of CMEA, USSR; violent dissolution of Yugoslavia
· impact of end of Cold War on declining foreign aid and ODA to developing countries
· growing importance of foreign direct investment as means to achieve economic development in LDCs

· impoverishment of sub-Saharan Africa in post-Cold War period
· developing country debt crises
· energy politics and supply and 1991 Gulf War
· rise and spread of regional trade blocs (NAFTA, MERCOSUR, ASEAN, APEC)
· global environmental agreements (Kyoto Protocol)
· establishment of the World Trade Organization in 1995 (succeeded the GATT)
· environmental, labor, and cultural implications of globalization; other issues and problems
· water shortages
· weapons of mass destruction, environmental security, environmental terrorism


Roy H. Ginsberg is Professor of Government at Skidmore College in Saratoga Springs, New York and 2002-2003 Glaverbel Chair in European Politics at Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium. He teaches international and comparative politics, international political economy, and the politics and economics of European integration.

He has been Director of Skidmore's International Affairs Program, Visiting Professor at the Center for European Studies at New York University and the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Visiting Fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Fulbright Research Fellow at the Centre for European Policy Studies, and Research Fellow in European Integration at the European Commission. Professor Ginsberg co-founded and chaired the European Union Studies Association of the United States. He received his Ph.D. in Political Science from The George Washington University and was
an analyst in various federal agencies, including the Foreign Agricultural Service, the Office of Management and Budget, and the International Trade Commission.

Professor Ginsberg has submitted testimony on transatlantic relations for the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology and the House Foreign Affairs Committee. He has conducted numerous briefings and workshops on EU politics and EU-United States relations for the State Department's Office of Policy Planning, Office of the Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, and U.S. Information Service, and for other federal foreign policy agencies. He has also conducted similar briefings for organizations in Europe, including the Heinrich Boll Foundation, the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, the EU Committee of Policy Planners, and the European Commission.

He is author of Foreign Policy Actions of the European Community: The Politics of Scale, European Union-United States Relations in the 1990s: The Elements of Partnership (with T. Frellesen), The United States and the European Union in the 1990s: Partners in Transition (with K. Featherstone), and The European Union in International Politics: Baptism by Fire (with foreword by Stuart E. Eizenstat). In 2003 he published Ten Years of European Union Foreign Policy: Baptism, Confirmation, Validation with the Heinrich Boll Foundation. Professor Ginsberg speaks regularly on transatlantic relations in Europe and the United States and is a consultant to U.S. government agencies on European Union affairs and to U.S. universities on international studies education.