Recommended citation format
The following citation format and examples were adopted from guidelines published by the Ecological Society of America. This citation style is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary format that we believe is appropriate for works in environmental studies.
1) Internal citation
The format you use for your internal citation will depend upon how you have introduced the material in your sentence. Outlined below are two different methods for an internal citation, but both include the author’s last name and the year of publication:
In order for environmental conservation to move forward, we must adopt a land ethic, an ethic that reflects an ecological conscience in people (Leopold 1949).
Leapold (1949) argues that in order for environmental conservation to move forward, we must adopt a land ethic, an ethic that reflects an ecological conscience in people.
Your internal citation format also varies depending on the number of authors
of the work you are citing but again uses the authors’ last names and
year of publication:
Single author: use the format above
Two authors: use (Halstead and Kellogg 2003)
Three or more authors: use (Ennis-McMillan et al. 2003)
2) Literature cited page
On this page you must list all the sources referenced in your paper in alphabetical order of the first author’s last name. The exact format depends on whether you are citing a journal article, a chapter in an edited, a book or a report.
Last name and initial(s) of author, [followed by Initials and Last name of additional authors if any]. Year of publication. Title of article. Title of journal Volume number (Issue number if any): Inclusive page numbers.
Barron, M. G., E. E. Little, R. Calfee, and S. Diamond. 2000. Quantifying solar spectral irradiance in aquatic habitats for the assessment of photo-enhanced toxicity. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19(1):920-925.
Chapter in an edited book (use this format for the Taking Sides articles):
Last name and Initial(s) of author, [followed by Initials and Last name of additional authors if any]. Year of publication. Title of chapter. Pages inclusive page numbers in Initials and Last names of editors, editors. Title of book. Edition number if any. Name of publisher, City, State, Country of publisher.
Bailey, R. 2003. Debunking green myths. Pages 104-107 in T. A. Easton and T. D. Goldfarb, editors. Taking sides: environmental issues. Tenth edition. McGraw-Hill/Dushkin, Guilford, Connecticut, USA.
Last name and Initial(s) of author, [followed by Initials and Last name of additional authors if any]. Year of publication. Title of book. Edition number if any. Name of publisher, City, State, Country of publisher.
Sokal, R., and R. J. Rohlf. 1981. Biometry: the principles and practice of statistics in biological research. Second edition. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, California, USA.
Last name and Initial(s) of author, [followed by Initials and Last name of additional authors if any]. Year of publication. Title of report. Report type and number if any, Name of publishing organization, City, State, Country of publishing organization.
Butman, C. A., and R. J. Chapman. 1989. The 17-meter flume at the coastal research laboratory. Part 1: description and user’s manual. Technical Report WHOI-89-2, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA.
Last name and Initial(s) of author, [followed by Initials and Last name of additional authors if any]. Year Month Day of publication. Title of article. Title of newspaper; section of newspaper:beginning page number.
Pianin, E. 2003 September 27. U.S. study finds environmental rules well worth their cost. Times Union; Section A:3.
If anonymous simply substitute “[Anonymous]” for the author’s name.
3) World Wide Web sources
For information from the World Wide Web, you must provide the following information:
Author’s name (if known – otherwise anonymous)
Date of internet publication or last revision
Title of document or particular page
Title of entire web site and the person or organization responsible for maintaining the site
<URL> in angle brackets
Date accessed the site (very important)
Last name and Initial(s) of author, [followed by Initials and Last name of additional authors if any]. Date of internet publication. Document title. Retrieval information. <URL> Date of access.
In the text:
(Country Watch 2003)
Literature cited page:
Country Watch. 2003. Guatemala. History. <http://www.countrywatch.com/cw_country.asp?vcountry=69> Accessed April 9, 2003.
In the text:
Literature cited page:
Gallagher, L. 2002. Teaching as a work of heart.
<http://www.teachingheart.net/columbus.htm> Accessed April 9, 2003.
You should cite a source whenever you are:
1) using a direct quotation: Whenever you directly quote a source (printed or spoken), you must cite the source, even if the direct quotation is a phrase or part of a longer passage.
2) paraphrasing: When you take an original statement from another source and put that statement into your own words, you must cite the source.
3) summarizing: When you summarize material, condensing several pages from a source into one or two sentences, you must cite the source.
The basic information for any source includes:
1) the author
Who wrote the ideas and information? This can be one person or more than one person. For some general information, sometimes we use ideas from an organization.
2) the title of the work
What did the author write?
3) the title of the sources (if appropriate)
Where does this work appear? A journal? A chapter in an edited book? A newspaper? A web site?
4) the publishing information
a) Date of publication
c) Place of publication
d) Page number (location) for pieces from journals or books
5) one or more internal citations (i.e., citation within the text or body of your paper) and a fully formatted citation entry in the literature cited must be included for each source.
These guidelines were developed from ideas and information provided by Dr. Michael Ennis-McMillan, Dr. Karen Kellogg, Dr. Judith Halstead, and the Skidmore College Liberal Studies 1 faculty.