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La Historia General del Reyno de Granada


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Professor: Jordana Dym
Office: TLC 326


Thanks to the following for their contributions to this page:

Juan Carlos Letora, Jaime Casta





Skidmore College
Student Resources
Latin American History


Latin American History Links-Colonial



Univ. Texas Latin America Network Information Center (LANIC), the principal clearing house on Latin American information on the Net, . Sites listed here are from all over the world, principally the Latin America, the US, and Europe.

Women (;
Religion & Theology
Indigenous Peoples
African Diaspora (;
Social Sciences--History, Anthropology, etc

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Europe & Iberia

The end of the Middle Ages-14th/15th C. Europe-U.Calgary Tutorial The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry-15th c. European Life in images
Iberian Chivalric Literature
History of Moorish Spain
History of Spain-Brief overviews for each period, provided by Spanish Tourism agency w/ cooperation of diplomatic service
WebMuseum, Paris--Artists & Artistic Trends, Middle Ages-20th c
Four colonial and pre-colonial documents: The Bull of Grenada (1486); Columbus' Experience; partial sermon of 1511 (Antonio Montesinos) (in Spanish); The Requerimiento (in Spanish)
Medieval Jewish Life (Spain & Elsewhere in Europe, to 1492) including Fuero of Teruel (1192) on Jews, Christians & Moors
1495-Primary Source on Expulsion of Jews from Spain
1491-Lorenzo Medici-Paternal Advice to a Cardinal
Webpage: Spanish Inquisition
Internet Medieval Sourcebook-P. Halsall, ed.--links to numerous primary sources on Early Modern Europe
Hanover Historical Text Project--Interesting texts from Antiquity to the Present, including the Familiar Letters of Petrarch
Footwear of the Middle Ages (Europe)
Urban Population-Cities of Europe, N Africa, Middle East, 500-1483 The Medieval Technology Page (By P. J. Gans)
The Transformation of Europe-15th c (Prof. G. Rempel, WNEC)

Spain & Its Coins
Website: Kings of Spain, Kings of Spain & Portugal, Kingdoms of Europe
Website: Building blocks in Cartography: Portolan charts of 1424, 1466, 1489, 1507
Webpate: Mapping the Map, 200-1500 (History of cartography)
Webpage: Catalan Atlas, 14th c: illustrations


Website: Early Americas Digital Gateway & Archive: full texts of primary sources in English, French, & Spanish; on the site or links
Early Cities of the Americas (Common Grounds special issue)
Website: Theories about the Bering Strait Crossing
Pre-Columbian Culture Links (Inca, Aztec, Maya, North American Indians, Research Opportunities)

Pre-Columbian & African (Benin) Art-Destroit Institute for the Arts
Examples of Colonial & Pre-Colonial Architecture in the Americas
Images from Mesoamerica, pre- and post-conquest
Tikal, Story of a Rainforest Capital -The Athena Review, 1999
Chocolate, the Food of the Gods-The Athena Review, 1999
Ancient American Civilizations, the Central Andes , Mesoamerica (Powerpoint presentations, prof. JW Hoopes, U. Kansas), Mesoamerica Web Resources
Aztec Manuscripts
Website: Aztec Society
Lords of the Earth: Aztec, Maya Inca Exchange
The Nahua
Links to Arcaheology Sites-South America; Central America; North America & Mexico
Websites: Inca Architecture, Bolivian Raised-Land Farming, the Osmore Drainage findings (Ceramics, etc, 900-1375AD)
Website: Inca & Moche, Toltec, Aztec, Maya, (Segments of the Central & South American WWW Research Institute at Richard Stockton College of New Jersey)
sWebsite: Prof. R. Hooker, U. Washington, Civilizations in America (includes Olmec, Toltec, Aztec, Maya,Iinca
Website: Tiwanaku Polity (Andes), with additional pages, including 1996 PhD Dissertation on Settlement & Landuse in Pre-Columbian Cochabamba, Bolivia (by A. Higueras)
Website: Frank Salomon (U.Wisc) Huarochiri: A Peruvian Culture in Time, includes a discussion of the quipu (khipu)
Website: The Inca, includes links to Inca Road Systems, Origin Myths, a Bibliography & More; the Aztecs; (Student Projects for an Anthropology Course, UWGB)
The Inca (Spanish) (through Tupac Amaru)


The Estevanico Society--The Estevanico Society is dedicated to scholarly research into the life and journeys of Estevanico (also Esteban or Stephen the Black.) The society aims to explore his origins in Morocco, his enslavement by the Portugese and Spanish, and his historic journey through the American Southwest, ending with his death at the Zuni Pueblo of Hawikuh.
Website: Fact, Fiction & the New World The Role of Books in the Making of America (Columbus, Travelers, Mapping, etc)
Website: Latitude: What they Knew in 1440 & 1516 (P. Seed, Rice U.)
Webpage: Early Navigation Methods
Columbus & the Age of Discovery -- Over 1100 articles on-line.

The Columbus Letter of 1494 -- original text, translation, historical context, Prof. M. Edney, Univ. of Southern Maine (British Museum: About the Columbus Letters: Were there 1, 2 or 3?)

Columbus' Letter to Luis Sant'Angel, 1493
Extracts from Columbus' Journals/Logbooks
Lib. of Congress:1492- An Ongoing Voyage  LC Exhibits home page
Websites: Columbus' Navigation; What Columbus' Crew Ate;
Columbus' Crew
Columbus' Voyages (weblinks)
Columbus' Lost Ships
Website: US Capitol: The Columbus Doors
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
Texts: Requerimiento, Montesinos Sermon, Patronato Real, etc (Spanish)
Bibliography: European Expansion & Encounter (CUNY)
Examples of Colonial & Pre-Colonial Architecture in the Americas

Indian Demographic Collapse/ The missions (Prof. R. Jackson, Oneonta)
The Journey of Coronado (1540), by Pedro de Castaneda, 1596, at PBS Archives of the West
The Journey of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca (1542)
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, Report to the Viceroy from Cibola, August 1540
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, Report to the King from Tiguex, October 1541
Webpage: Brief Biographies of Conquistadors
Maps: 4th Voyage of Columbus, Voyage of Cortes, 1524 Map of Gulf of Mexico, by Cortés Expedition, Orellana & the Trek down the Amazon River (1540s)

Bibliography: Age of Discovery (by themes, Spanish & Portuguese) Particularly strong on Portuguese expansion, conquest & colonial society
Maps: Medieval Europe (Halsall, Sourcebook)
European Voyages of Exploration: Imperial Spain (webpage, U Calgary)
Bernal Díaz del Castillo: Historia verdadera de la conquista de Nueva España (Spanish)
Timeline: Conquest of Perú
Website/Timeline: Conquest of Mexico
Bibliography: Conquest of Mexico, Conquest & Chroniclers of Perú, Bartolomé de las Casas
Text: Capitulacion to F. Pizarro for Conquest of Perú (Spanish)
Book: William Prescott, Conquest of Perú (on-line); Alternate Site: History of the Conquest of Perú
Adventures in the Unknown Interior of America," Vasquez de Coronado (1542)
Web de Anza-U. Oregon site on the conquest/colonization of upper california, 1770s, including various primary sources of conquerors & explorers; see also the De Anza Historical Trail Website; the De Anza Expedition with list of original settler familie
Bibliography: Renaissance Exploration
Africans & the New World, Britian, 1655-1833
Website: Definitions of units of measurement, particularly the relation of leagues & miles
Website: The Conquest Era , the 17th C, the 18thc, the 19th c, (Guanajuato State Government)(Spanish)
Website: The Missions of Alta California, with timeline
Beginnings of British Columbia, Spanish Heritage (Canada Gvt tourism site)
Website: Spain, the US & the American Frontier (Library of Congress)
Website: El Dorado: Wargaming South & Central American Conflicts--Conquest-1930s
Article: Alfred Crosby, The Columbian Exchange; links to on-line resources
Website: Seeds of Change (sources of different foods)
Bibliography: Biological & Cultural Exchange in the New World


Maps, from the Ancient & Medieval through Renaissance, including maps of the "New World" (includes monographs on many)
Agnese Atlas (1544) at Library of Congress-9 Plates of Portolan Charts

1562 Map of America(Diego Gutierrez)
The Conquest of Perú (Map)
The Conquest of Mexico (Map)
Brief History of Maps & Cartography by James S. Aber
More Maps: Hargrett Collection (Georgia)
Maps--David Rumsey Collection--Colonial & 19th. c Maps of North & South America
Historical Maps-UTexas Perry Castañeda Collection
New World Maps & Site Plans (original & reconsructions, Athena)
Maps, Paintings & Images of Colonial Latin America (UC Berkeley)
Maps of the New World, Columbus to Lewis & Clark (15th-19th c), on-line exhibition
Maps & images, Americas



Pre-Columbian & African (Benin) Art-Destroit Institute for the Arts
Bibliography: Africans & the New World, Brittan, 1655-1833
The Forest Kingdoms of Africa-pre 16thc., R.Hooker, 1996
Images of  the Atlantic Slave Trade: A Media Database
African Timeline: African Empires (1-15th c); in the Age of European Imperialism
Mystic Seaport --Exploring Amistad, includes maps, primary documents, teaching tools,  -- & how we make history out of it

Duke U. Special Collections, Third Person, First Person: Slave Voices from the Special Collections Library
Calidad & Clase in Spanish America, 17th & 18th C. (McCaa)
Capturing a Maroon Slave, Saint Domingue, 1781
Excerpts from Slave Narratives
Olaudah Equiano, Interesting Narratives of the Life of O.E.... the African (Hanoverr Historical Texts)
Casta Paintings (27 of them; better quality in 2nd half)
Henry Louis Gates' Jr., PBS Special, The Slave Kingdoms (1 of 4 episodes on Wonders of the African World
The Kennedy Center African Odyssey Interactive--information on culture & the arts--History& Geography Page

Website: Middle Passage, with abolition timeline; website with additional timeline
Webpage: Political Atlas of the African Diaspora



Website: Colonial Latin America, Prof. P. Bakewell, Emory
Webpages: Emory U., Colonial Latin America, with webpages on Colonial Administration, Viceroyalty-Peru, Mexico, as well as economy, mestizaje, music, architecture.
Colonial Spanish America (U. of Chile, Spanish; society & institutions)
Laws of Burgos (1512)
Instructions to Governor Mendoza (1535)
Tithes Series: Chile, Mexico, Peru--by Richard L. Garner
Historical Maps of the Americas-UTexas Perry Castañeda Collection
Relaciones Geográficas, 1570s & 1580s (on-line exhibit)
Relaciones Geográficas, 1570s&1580s-additional images & text (Spanish, English[Xonotla,PuertoRico])
Article: New World Order: Casta Paintings (Y. Ramírez)
Webpage: Casta Paintings, 18th c artist José Joaquín Magón
Article: Casta Painting: Identity & Social Stratification in Mexico
Webpage: Casta Paintings (27 of them; better quality in 2nd half)
Text: Solorzano (1600s): Status of the Mestizo
Maps--David Rumsey Collection--Colonial & 19th. c Maps of North & South America
New Laws (1542)
Spain: Leyes de Indias (Spanish) (PDF Version of 18th c. edn.)
Website: Guaman Poma de Ayala--Nueva corónica y buen gobierno -Images & text
Text: Solorzano (1600s): Status of the Mestizo
Text: Thomas Gage-1625-Description of Mexico City
Website: Slides of the Early Spanish Colonial Period (Prof. Cline, UCSB)
Website: Tlaxcala (tourism page, with attention to colonial society & architecture, as well as ecotourism, etc.)
Website: Colonial Mexico (images, principally; from a commercial site)
Webpages: Colonial Hacienda, Ejido, San Miguel de Allende, Mexico
Webpage: Principal Institutions of Colonial America;, such as-audiencia, -cabildo; Attributes of the Casa de Contratación; Consejo de Indias; (Spanish)
Primary Source: Informe: Fundación Audiencia de Nueva Granada (Colombia) (Spanish)
Article: Tovar Pinzón, El Saber Indigena: La Visita...1559 (Spanish, on Indian manipulation of visita)
Haciendas in the Andes
Webpage: Spanish Colonial Arts
Webpage: Colonial Saint Augustine (Florida)
Website: Art History--Interesting illustrated pages on encomienda & its elements, Creoles, Castes, Haciendas, Colonial Economy City & urban life, (Spanish)
Webpage: Research in Maritime History on the Internet: resources
Website: Pirates of the Spanish Main (good links); another site
Bibliography: History of Ideas in Colonial Latin America
Website: La América Española Colonial (Chile)
Webpage: Early Peruvian Chroniclers
Webpage: Dutch, Porgutugese Colonial History (good maps)
Webpage: Cartagena de Indias
Webpage: Colonial Mexican Art (Spanish)
Webpage: Historic Urban Plans (Commercial, copies of maps, plans)
Webpage: Panama, ca. 1770: Primary Source documents on Indian villages, mines, territories, &c
Website: Historia Colonial--Colombia (including Panama), 405 documents, primary & secondary sources
An Account of the Pueblo Revolt by Don Antonio de Otermin, governor and captain-general of New Mexico (1680).



Map-Independence in Latin America (in French)
Text: Alexander von Humboldt,Problèmes d'Amérique Latine (1800)
Text: A. von Humboldt on New Spain (1811); on mining
Text: Concolorcavo: El Lazarillo de ciegos caminando (full text, Sp.)

Text: Mariano Moreno: Defense of Free Trade
Text: Escritos de 2 economistas, Colombia, 18th c
Maps--David Rumsey Collection--Colonial & 19th. c Maps of North & South America
The French Revolution--With a chapter on the Haitian Revolution
Karl Marx, Revolutionary Spain (1854)
Primary Source: The Comunero Revolt: Document
Primary Source: Capitulaciones de los Comuneros (1781) (Spanish)
Plan of Tupac Amarú Revolt: Document, also Death of T. A.
Webpage: Napoleon Series. Several primary source in Reference, including French Civil Code & Abdication of Ferdinand VII & Carlos IV
Autobiografía de Don Manuel Belgrano (desde 1770 hasta la revolución de 1810


Sor Juana de la Cruz Internet Project
Our Lady of Guadalupe
History of Virgin of Guadalupe
Nuns of Colonial Mexico (Prof. Cline) (Also other clerics)
Bibliography: Women, Gender & History in Latin America
Bibliography: Women & Colonial Latin America
Syllabus: Women of Colonial Latin America
Bibliography: Sor Juana
Text: Catalina Erauso--Petition to Spanish Crown, 1625
Text: Historia de la Monja Alferez (Spanish; edn: Peru 2001)
Portraits: Catalina Erauso (Lieutenant Nun)
Bibliography & Biography: Catalina Erauso


U. Penn African Studies Links Page
Afro-Mexican History (an individual's page, with some historical figures of disputed African ancestry)
The French Revolution--With a chapter on the Haitian Revolution


Atlantic World

H-Atlantic Resources (Syllabi, Links, Bibliographies)
Spanish & Spanish American texts, 16th-19th c. (in Spanish)
Bibliography: Atlantic History (recent)
Caribbean Pirates--Emory U.
Pirate Vessels & other info (good website)









  • U. Miamia: Resources for "Memory & Record" : Cuban History
  • Text: Ms. travel account, Cuba, 1875, by J. A. Springer, US Consular Clerk Havana

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC (Santo Domingo/Hispaniola)




RIO DE LA PLATA (Argentina, Uruguay)

Diccionario de Autoridades (1726-1739) Spanish official dictionary of the mid-18th century (Select: DICCIONARIOS ACADEMICOS)
Website: Charles V (Carlos V) in Spanish
Karl Marx, Revolutionary Spain (1854)



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