Kiel IV Carbonate Device
The Kiel IV is an automated carbonate reaction device for the acidification of carbonate to carbon dioxide, removal of water vapor, and subsequent input to the MAT-253 mass spectrometer. The main components are (1) an oven to maintain a reaction temperature of 70oC, a vial to hold phosphoric acid, two acid dosing valves and reaction vials for simultaneous reaction of two samples at a time, (3) pumps and valves for creating a vacuum, and (4) a liquid nitrogen dosing system for cryogenic removal of water vapor and other gases. Carbonate samples are loaded into small round bottom vials and placed in a circular steel tray to be loaded into the oven portion of the Kiel. Subsequent analysis is automated. The analysis of isotopic composition of carbonate from mineral (e.g. stalagmite calcite) and biogenic (e.g. dacryoconarids, foraminifera, bivalves, brachiopods, otoliths, and corals) is increasingly important in palæoclimatic reconstructions.