Influence of Meal Frequency (3vs.6 meals/day) and Macronutrient Composition (higher vs. lower protein) on Psychological Mood States in Men and Women
Ashley Lipes and Dana Martin
Dr. Paul Arciero
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between hunger, composition of food consumed, frequency of meals, and if this has any effect on one's psychological mood state. Individuals with a BMI of greater than 25 were recruited for the study (n=28, 4 males and 24 females).
Psychological mood state was assessed throughout the study using the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, a profile of mood states questionnaire, and visual analog scales. Stress levels were assessed using heart rate and blood pressure measurements.
Results showed that a higher protein diet and higher meal frequency (6 meals per day) produce decreased levels of anxiety, decreased levels of tension, decreased levels of stress, decreased levels of fatigue, decreased blood pressure levels, and increased levels of vigor.