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American Studies Courses

AM 232 H - New England Begins 3 credits
A critical examination of the evolution of culture and society in New England during the seventeenth century. After considering the origins of the Puritan community, the course will explore the ways in which that society changed over the course of the first seventy-five years of settlement, using the resources and methods of a variety of disciplines. By a culminating investigation of the events of the Salem witchcraft crisis of 1692, questions will be raised as to the impact of those changes and some of the ways in which New Englanders responded to them. Finally, by studying several historical and literary treatments of the witch trials, we will gain a greater understanding of the interconnections between the past and the present. (This is an Honors course; it fulfills the social sciences requirement.) Instructor: M. Lynn

AM 250A - Regional Culture: "The Hudson River" 4 credits
An introduction to the history, literature, and art of the Hudson River Valley. The Hudson River is considered as an environmental entity, an economic and political concern, and especially as a cultural symbol. The course considers four centuries of American experience on the Hudson, but focuses on the nineteenth century, when the Hudson had its greatest influence on regional and national culture. (Fulfills society-B component of breadth requirement.) Instructor: G. Pfitzer

AM 250B - Regional Culture: "The West" 4 credits
An examination of the mythic, historical, and contemporary West, western heroes and themes and what they reveal about American values and culture. Using film, literature, social and intellectual histories and the arts, the course considers discrepancies in the images and realities of western exploration and settlement. After considering the colonial period, the course then explores nineteenth century conflicts over property, natural preservation, mineral and water claims, and the rights of native Americans and concludes with an examination of contemporary images and issues. (Fulfills society-B component of breadth requirement.) Instructor: W. Hall

AM 250D - Regional Culture: "New England" 3 credits
A study of the growth and development of regional culture in the northeastern United States from the eighteenth century to the present. Beginning with a consideration of the heritage of the Puritan settlers, the course proceeds to an examination of the Revolutionary experience, the industrial revolution, the New England renaissance of the nineteenth century, and the transforming impact of immigration and migration on the region's population. It ends with a study of the literature, politics, and economy of New England in the twentieth century. (Fulfills social sciences requirement). Instructor: M. Lynn

AM 260B - Themes in American Culture: "The Machine In The Garden" 3 credits
An introduction to the impact of industrialism on the American pastoral ideal. The course focuses on the cultural themes of agrarian paradise, the geopolitics of land use, sentimental glorifications of the past, the image of the American farmer, and the transformation of the American pastoral landscape. The central theme of the course is the inability of nineteenth and twentieth century Americans to hold onto the vision of an American Arcadia in the face of rampant industrialization and unrestricted technology. (Fulfills society-B component of breadth requirement.) Instructor: G. Pfitzer

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Anthropology Courses

AN 268 - People and the Environment in China

An examination of human-environment interactions in China. The emphasis is on sociocultural practices bearing upon the environment. Topics include historical and cultural ecology, demography, agriculture and land tenure systems, the role of the state, and Chinese environmentalism. Students will gain a foundation in the concepts and approaches used in situating human-environment interactions in their historical and cultural contexts. They will also learn about the variety of human-environment interactions in China, both historically and in modern times, and understand the complexities of human-ecological dilemmas in the Chinese context. Prerequisite: AN101 or ES100, or permission of instructor. (Designated a non-Western culture course; fulfills social sciences requirement.) Instructor: Department

AN 344 - Anthropology and Environmental Health 3 credits
An examination of health issues related to global environmental change. The course employs perspectives and theories of critical medical anthropology to explore the connections among broad patterns of environmental change, local responses to those changes, and relevant health concerns. Topics include the effects of population growth, unbanization, water pollution and water scarcity, epidemics, deforestation, and species extinction in diverse geographic settings. Special attention is given to how poor and powerless social groups bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health problems. Prerequisite: AN 101 and at least junior standing, or permission of instructor, or ES 100. Instructor: M.Ennis-McMillan

AN 345 - Ecological Anthropology 3 credits
Exploration of the principles by which the environment shapes human culture and human culture shapes the environment. Topics include the process of human adaptation, the analysis of human ecosystems, and the explanation of cultural diversity and change from an ecological perspective. Prerequisite: AN 101 or 102 or permission of instructor, or ES 100. Instructor: M. Ennis-McMillan

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Biology Courses

BI 140 - Marine Biology 4 credits
An examination of the intricate and delicate nature of plant, animal, fungal, and microbial life beneath the Earth's oceans and on its shorelines. Lecture topics include ocean chemistry and biochemistry, physiology of marine organisms, evolution and diversity of the marine world, marine ecosystems, and human-ocean interactions. The laboratory will include experimental manipulations of marine plants and animals, survey of various life forms, culture techniques, ecological sampling, and mariculture. Three hours of lecture, two hours of laboratory per week. Laboratory fee: $60. (Qualifies as nature A or B[lab] course for breadth requirement.) Instructor: D. Domozych

BI 180 - Economic Botany 4 credits
An introduction to the concepts of plant and fungal biology and a hands-on survey of the practices associated with plant science and mycology. This course will explore the fascinating yet poorly understood kingdoms of plants and fungi. Lectures will focus upon the structure and role of the plant/fungal systems, their evolution, their importance in the biosphere, and their utilization in human affairs. Laboratories will include field trips to areas of botanical/mycological interest, horticultural exercises, comprehensive surveys of various taxonomic groups, and experiences in current biotechnology. Three hours of lecture, two hours of laboratory per week. (Qualifies as nature A or B[lab] course for breadth requirement.) Instructor: D. Domozych

BI 240 - Environmental Biology 4 credits
An examination of the physical and biotic features of Earth, the role of humans in affecting the planet's ecology and the ways ecological systems affect humans. This course provides the fundamental concepts of environmental biology along with specific examples from the natural world and human modification. Topics include: the basics of the physical nature of earth, physiological ecology including the biochemistry and metabolism of life forms and nutrient cycles, biodiversity, interspecific relationships, population and community dynamics, ecosystem structure, pollution and environmental toxiology, resource management and restoration design. Laboratory consists of field trips, ecological sampling techniques, ecological survey of local habitats, phytoremediation, pollution simulation and examination of biodiversity. Prerequisite: ES 104 or ES 105 or BI 190. Instructor: D. Domozych

BI 241 - Ecology 4 credits
A field, laboratory, and lecture course in which the interactions among organisms and their physical-chemical environment are explored. Prerequisite: any 200-level BI course or permission of the instructor. Three hours of lecture, three hours of laboratory or field work per week. One Saturday field trip. Instructor: M. Raveret-Richter

BI 243 - Plant Biology 4 credits
A laboratory, field, and lecture course which studies the following topics: anatomy, morphology, physiology, development, and spring flora. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: BI 190 or BI 240 or permission of the instructor. Offered in the spring semester. Instructor: D. Domozych

BI 307 - Ornithology 4 credits
Birds as model organisms for an integrative study of biology. This course explores avian form and function, the ecology, evolution, and behavior of birds, and avian conservation. Prerequisites : BI 190 and any 200-level biology course, or BI 240. Three hours of lecture, three hours of field or laboratory work a week. One Saturday field trip. Instructor: C. Freeman-Gallant

BI 324 - Evolution 4 credits
A survey of topics in evolutionary theory: the evidence for evolution, mechanisms of evolutionary change, species concepts, and speciation. Introduction to the concepts of variability, adaptation, neutrality, and phylogeny through discussion and lab work. Prerequisite: BI 233 or permission of instructor. Three hours of lecture, three hours of lab per week. Instructor: C. Freeman-Gallant (New prerequisites: BI 233 or 240 or permission of instructor.)

BI 325 - Tropical Ecology 3 credits
An introduction to the ecology of tropical regions, with an emphasis on Central and South American forests. In this course, we will take an ecological approach to investigating the patterns, processes, and organisms characterizing tropical ecosystems. We will study the forces that gave rise to tropical biodiversity, and discuss both the preservation and the destruction of tropical ecosystems. Prerequisites: BI 190 and 237. Instructor: M. Raveret-Richter (New prerequisites: BI 190 and either 236 or 237, or 240.)

BI 327 - Conservation Ecology 3 credits
Focuses upon developing an understanding of the diversity of life, in an ecological and evolutionary context, and applying that understanding to critical analyses of issues and problems in conservation biology. Prerequisites: BI190 and either BI 236 or 237. Instructor: M. Raveret-Richter (New prerequisites: BI 190 and either BI 236 or 237, or 240.)

BI 338 - Plant Biotechnology 4 credits
A modern analysis of humankind's use of plants and fungi and their derived products. Major subjects covered include: ethnobotany, plant genetic engineering, plant biochemistry, techniques of plant production, agricultural practices, horticulture, and medicinal botany/mycology. Three hours of lecture, three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: BI 237 or permission of the instructor. Instructor: D. Domozych

BI 370 - Computer Modeling of Biological Systems 3 credits
An introductory course in the methods, procedures, uses, and implications of digital computer modeling of biological processes from the molecular through the population level of organization, with particular focus on the systems level. Prerequisite: BI 190 and a 200-level BI course or permission of the instructor. Two hours of lecture, two hours of laboratory per week. Instructor: R. Meyers (New prerequisite: BI 190 and a 200-level BI course, or permission of the instructor.)

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Chemistry Courses

CH 105 - Chemical Principles I 4 credits
Fundamental concepts of chemistry are presented. Emphasis is placed upon atomic and molecular structure, physical and chemical properties related to structure, periodic relationships, mass relationships, thermochemistry, and properties of solutions. The lab experiments provide applications of the principles. Prerequisite: high-school algebra (two years) and chemistry (one year), or CH 101 or 103; and QR1. Three hours of lecture-discussion and three hours of lab a week. (Fulfills QR2; qualifies as Nature-B[lab] course for breadth requirement.

CH 106 - Chemical Principles II 4 credits
Both Theoretical and descriptive aspects of the chemistry of electrolytic solutions will be explored. The lecture material will be applied in the lab to the problems of inorganic synthesis, quantitative chemistry, and analytical separations. Prerequisites: CH 105. Three hours of lecture-discussion and three hours of lab a week.

CH 111 - Environmental Chemistry 3 credits
A study of fundamental chemical principles as they relate to environmental issues such as air pollution, acid rain, global warming, destruction of the ozone layer, the production and consumption of energy, and water pollution. A basic understanding of chemical principles and practices is necessary to fully appreciate the scope and complexity of current global environmental issues. Specific examples of international environmental problems are presented as case studies to reinforce the course material. Chemical concepts such as atomic structure, bonding, themodynamics, nuclear chemistry, and chemical reactivity are introduced as they pertain to particular environmental issues. Prerequisite: QR1. (Fulfills QR2 and qualifies as a nature-A [non-lab] course for breath requirement.) Instructor: S. Frey

CH 112 - Environmental Chemistry with Lab 4 credits
A study of fundamental chemical principles as they relate to environmental issues such as air pollution, acid rain, global warming, destruction of the ozone layer, the production and consumption of energy, and water pollution. A basic understanding of chemical principles and practices is necessary to fully appreciate the scope and complexity of current global environmental issues. Specific examples of international environmental problems are presented as case studies to reinforce the course material. Chemical concepts such as atomic structure, bonding, themodynamics, nuclear chemistry, and chemical reactivity are introduced as they pertain to particular environmental issues. Laboratory exercises that relate to the environmental issues presented in lectures serve to reinforce students' understanding of the underlying chemical principles. Prerequisite: QR1. (Fulfills QR2 and qualifies as a nature-B [lab] course for breath requirement.) Instructor: S. Frey

CH 221 - Organic Chemistry I 5 credits
The structures, physical properties, reactivity, and reaction mechanisms of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are investigated. The laboratory introduces the student to synthesis, purification, and chemical and spectroscopic methods of characterizing organic compounds. Prerequisite: CH 106. Three hours of lecture-discussion, and four hours of laboratory a week. Instructors: R. Giguere, J. Ritorto

CH 303 - Modern Analytical Chemistry 5 credits
Modern analytical chemistry techniques for the separation and identification of chemical entities with an emphasis on instrumental methods. Sampling techniques and statistical treatment of data are also discussed. Prerequisites: CH 222 and PY 208. Three hours of lecture-discussion and four hours of laboratory a week. Instructor: D. Weis (New prerequisites: CH 221.)

CH 353 - Topics in Environmental Chemistry 3 credits
An advanced study of selected global, national, and local topics in environmental chemistry. Possible topics include stratospheric ozone cycle, global climate change, tropospheric smog, acid deposition, nutrient cycling, alkalinity, eutrophication, water treatment, and hazardous wastes. Prerequisite: CH 221. Three hours of lecture-discussion a week. Instructor: D. Weis

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Economics Courses

EC 316 - Economics of Development 3 credits
The Theory and practice of economic development in the third world. Topics include: analysis of world income distribution and causes of world income inequalities; the contribution of social change, politics, economics and economic planning to the process of developent; means of improving the quantity and quality of domestic and international economic resources; methods for improving sectoral output and productivity; policies for redistribution and basic needs and for combating the equity-efficiency trade-off in development strategies. Prerequisites: EC 103 and 104, or permission of instructor. Instructor: M. Odekon

EC 343 - Environmental and Resource Economics 3 credits
Analysis of contemporary environmental and resource problems (e.g., air, water, noise and aesthetic pollution, extinction of animal and plant species) through the use of economic theories and techniques of evaluation. Environmental policies dealing with these problems will also be considered. Prerequisite: EC 104 or consent of instructor. Instructor: Department

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English Courses

EN 363B - Literature and the Environment 3 credits
In this course, we'll ask how American writers, from the nineteenth century to the present, represent nature--that is, the non-human environment of woods and field, marshes and mountains, flora and fauna--in their fiction, poetry, and nonfiction. How does historical and cultural context influence a writer's rhetorical strategies (focusing especially on metaphor), voice, and sense of purpose? How and why have writers from Emerson and Thoreau to Annie Dillard and Barry Lopez responded to the natural world? How have they "read" nature? How has nature "spoken" to them? How does a writer's representation of nature reflect his or her sense of identity, and how do these writers help us to understand how one's identity is shaped by such experiences as exploring wilderness, climbing mountains, or living in the desert? "After all," Gertrude Stein once wrote, "anybody is as their land and air is. Anybody is as the sky is low or high, the air heavy or clear, anybody is as there is wind or not wind there. It is that which makes them and the arts they make…." This course will offer students an understanding of the tradition of American nature writing, a familiarity with its major figures and their work, and a familiarity with important texts in the growing literature of ecocriticism. In addition to the writers mentioned above, our readings will include works by Hawthorne, Whitman, Muir, Frost, London, Abbey, and Leopold. We will supplement these primary sources with substantial reading of critical works, including Leo Marx's The Machine in the Garden, Lawrence Buell's The Environmental Imagination, and essays by such writers as Perry Miller and Yi-Fu Tuan. (Fulfills the later period requirement for English majors.) Instructor: S. Goodwin

EN 378 - Romanticism and Environmentalism in Britain 4 credits
British writers and painters of the Romantic period (roughly 1789-1838) turned their attention to the relations between human beings and "Nature" or the non-human world. In doing so they helped to shape what would become the modern movements of environmentalism and ecocriticism. In this course, students will consider such major figures as Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Mary and Percy Shelley, and Keats, as well as the landscape painters Turner and Constable, analyzing their evolving concepts of Nature and the environment in relation to art and the human community. Prerequisites: No prerequisites for non-majors; EN 201 and EN 202 or permission of instructor for English majors. Instructor: Sarah Goodwin

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Environmental Studies Courses

ES 100 - Environmental Concerns in Perspective 3 credits
An interdisciplinary, multiple-perspective approach to the study of environmental concerns. In this course, students study the interaction of human beings and their social, political, and economic institutions with the natural environment. Issues such as air pollution, water pollution, and land management are discussed from the perspectives of both the natural sciences and the social sciences. Local, regional, national, international, and historical perspectives on these issues are also discussed. Prerequisite: QR1 - Instructor: J. A. Halstead, K. Kellogg, R.Wilkinson

ES 105 - Field Studies in Environmental Science 4 credits
An interdisciplinary natural science approach to the study of environmental issues. The primary focus of this course is a drinking water source for Saratoga Springs, Loughberry Lake. The sources of the lake's water supply, characteristics of the lake, and the nature of the land surrounding the lake, including Skidmore's North Woods, are considered from a biological, chemical, and geological perspective. The course involves laboratory and field work and emphasizes the scientific method, and techniques and theories used to measure, analyze, and describe changes in the environment. Three house of lecture, three hours of lab a week. Offered spring semester. Prerequisite: QR1. (Fulfills QR2 and natural sciences requirement.) Instructors: S. Frey, K. Kellogg, K. Marsella, K. Nichols, S. van Hook

ES 221 - Sustainable Development 3 credits
Examination of the tension between the need for economic development by less developed countries and the necessity to protect and preserve global environment. We will explore both domestic issues facing developing countries as they struggle to address their economic and environmental problems, and how their relationship with the rest of the international community influences their decisions. We will use various case studies (e.g., international fisheries, etc.) to explore the interplay between the environment, society, and economics on both a local and global level. Prerequisites: QR2. Instructor: Karen Kellogg

ES 241 - Adirondack Wilderness Experience 4 credits
The Adirondack Park is the birthplace of the American concept of wilderness and land conservation. It is the second oldest park in the U.S. and the largest publicly protected area in the contiguous United States, larger than Yellowstone, Everglades, Glacier, and Grand Canyon parks combined. Today, it is on the cutting edge of how to turn the abstract principles of environmental sustainability into a set of feasible political, economic, and ecological principles. This class will examine the natural setting of the park, the environmental impact of humans on the park, the evolution of popular views of the wilderness, the attempts to balance development and preservation, the prospects of bio-regional level governance, and the major challenges to ecological, social, and economic success in the Adirondack Park. The emphasis of the course is on experiential learning and will involve various hikes and/or canoe trips into the wilderness itself. Offered summer only. Instructors: R. Turner, K. Nichols

ES 251 - Food, Food Culture, and Society 3 credits
In this course we will ask why we eat what we eat, and investigate the changing food and food habits of America. We will begin our discussions with an overview of food and nutrition in the ancient world. Next, we will study the food of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa during the middle ages and the renaissance. Then we will examine the revolution in food created by the discovery of the Americas by Europeans. Finally, we will consider the food of the early 21st century and how it makes its way to our table. Instructor: Una Bray

ES 281 - Disease and the Environment 3 credits
An introduction to the study of the relationship between disease and the environment. For example, we will study the epidemic of cholera in industrial Britain, the evidence linking smoking to lung disease, the relationship between exposure to lead and developmental problems in children, and other important cases in the history of epidemiology that yielded a link to environmental causes. We will continue using a "case study" approach to examine current issues in environmental disease. Students will be encouraged to learn problem-solving and technical skills as they work together to prepare their own group case. Prerequisites: QR2. Instructor: Una Bray

ES 351 - Business and Environmental Sustainability 3 credits
The purpose of this course is to study the interaction of businesses and the natural environment. We will assess what this interaction means for businesses, stakeholders, stockholders, business leaders, citizens, and of course the natural environment. The course will begin with an examination of the history of environmental movement and its result effect on business practices. We will continue with an examination of the regulatory, social, and economic pressures that have evolved to define modern environmental management—resulting in a better understanding of the delicate balance between economically viable business practices and an environmentally sustainable world. Instructor: Kevin Fletcher

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Geology Courses

GE 101 - Earth Systems Science 4 credits
An introduction to Earth's dynamic systems and geologic processes. The planet is studied from its oceanic, surficial, and atmospheric components to develop a scientific understanding of Earth as a holistic environmental system of which the biosphere, including humanity, is one component. Within this context, course topics such as rocks and minerals, mountain building, earthquakes, volcanoes, oceans, glaciers, and deserts are examined from the perspective of the interactions between geologic processes and humans. Three hours of lecture and two hours of lab a week and one full-day field trip on a weekend. Prerequisite: QR1. (Fulfills QR2 requirements; qualifies as a natural science laboratory course for breadth requirement.) Instructors: TBA and K. Marsella

GE 112 - Oceanography 4 credits
A general introduction to the marine realms showing how the oceans, which account for more than 70% of the earth's surface, function as a dominant environmental force. Consideration also is given to the impact of human activity on this ecological system. This class explores the origin of Earth and its oceans and the physical processes that continue to reshape the marine realm. Additional topics include the physical and chemical properties of sea water, ocean circulation and heat transport, sedimentation, complex interactions among oceans, lithosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere that give rise to global climate regimes and climate change through time, and human interaction with oceans to derive important natural resources as well as the impact of that interaction. Prerequisite: QR1. (Fulfills the laboratory science and QR2 requirements.) Instructor: K. Cartwright

GE 113W - Dangerous Earth: Climatologic and Geologic Disasters 4 credits
Introduction to the diverse ways in which climatologic and geologic phenomena influence human lives and activities, the root cause of disaster phenomena, and the principles that render seemingly random natural disasters comprehensible and predictable. Students will read eye witness accounts of natural disasters such as floods, droughts, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes and will explore the extent to which disasters and ephemeral events are regulated by cyclic and/or periodic earth processes. This will enable students to make predictions and develop scenarios to mitigate against potential effects of future natural disasters. Open to first- and second-year students only. (This is an Honors course; it qualifies as nature-A [non-lab] course for breadth requirement.) Instructors: K. Cartwright, R. Lindemann

GE 204 - Structural Geology 4 credits
The recognition, origin, and interpretation of the various structures present in the earth's crust. Study of structure is directed toward reconstruction of stresses involved in ancient periods of tectonism. Three hours of lecture, three hours of lab a week. Prerequisite: GE101 or permission of instructor. Offered 2000-01 and alternate years. (New prerequisite: GE 101 or GE 207.)

GE 207 - Environmental Geology 3 credits
An introduction to the application of geological information to human problems encountered in the physical environment. (Qualifies as a nature-A course for the breadth requirement.) Instructor: K. Johnson

GE 211 - Climatology 4 credits
Introduction to the basic components of Earth's climate system: the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. The course investigates the basic physical processes that determine climate and the links among the components of the climate system, including the hydrologic and carbon cycles and their roles in climate, climate stability, and global change. Topics also include climate patterns and forecasting climate, as well as their applications and human impacts. Includes lab. Instructors: K. Cartwright

GE 301 - Hydrogeologic Systems 3 credits
An advanced course on the physical processes of water transport and accumulation in surface and shallow subsurface environments, as well as environmental impacts on water quality. The first half of the course covers scientific principles of the hydrologic cycle including precipitation, evapotranspiration infiltration, groundwater flow, and surface runoff. The second half of the course examines the impacts of agriculture, urban development, and human population growth on both the quantity and quality of water in the hydrologic cycle. Throughout the course, scientific principles are illustrated by real world case studies of water management issues. Prerequite: GE 101 or GE 207. Instructor: K. Nichols

GE 304 - Geomorphology 4 credits
Analysis of the geologic and climatic factors that control the evolution of topography. Lab study is concentrated on the physical character of the United States and on the geologic configurations which determine landform distribution and therefore are the basis for physical subdivision. Two hours of lecture, three hours of lab a week. Prerequisite: GE101. Not open to first-year students. Offered in 2000-01 and alternate years. Instructor: K. Johnson (New prerequisite: GE101 or GE 207.)

GE 311 - Paleoclimatology 3 credits
An advanced course that examines the history of Earth's climate, the physical processes that influence it and their interaction, as well as controlling mechanisms. Emphasis is placed on biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric and oceanic chemistry and circulation patterns through time, the influences of volcanic aerosols and asteroid impacts on climate, icehouse and greenhouse cycles, and the climates of Phanerozoic. Instructor: K. Cartwright

GE 315 - Sedimentology 4 credits
Introduction to terrigenous clastic, carbonate and evaporite sedimentary rocks. Topics include weathering, erosion, transport and deposition of particle systems. Emphasis on Holocene depositional models and their use in recognition of ancient sedimentary environments. Prerequisite: GE101, 102. Three hours of lecture, three hours of lab a week. Offered 2001-02 and alternate years. Instructor: R. Lindemann

GE 316 - Stratigraphy 4 credits
Study of lithologic and biologic units of sedimentary strata, their classification, correlation, and use in environmental and geographic reconstructions. Emphasis placed on the respective roles of organisms, geosynclines and tectonic events in the development of continents and sedimentary basins. Prerequisite: GE315. Three hours of lecture, four hours of lab a week. Offered 2001-02 and alternate years. Instructor: R. Lindemann

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Government Courses

GO 231 - Environmental Politics and Policy
An exploration of how political, economic, and social interests contend for influence and exert power in the realm of environmental policy. We look at the ways in which local, regional, national, and international governmental institutions, non-governmental organizations and interest groups, and the public interact in defining environmental problems, and formulating and implementing solutions. The course uses case studies on timely environmental issues ranging from cleaning up toxic waste pollution to endangered species protection to understand the clashes between science and politics at local, state, federal, and international levels. Prerequisites: GO 101, ES 100, or permission of instructor

GO 338 - International Diplomatic Negotiations 3 credits
An exploration of the techniques and practice of diplomatic negotiations as a peaceful way of resolving international disputes. The course addresses a variety of international negotiating problems (political, strategic, environmental, and economic) that involve different kinds of actors (great, intermediate, and small powers; intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations; and private groups) from various parts of the world in diverse settings (global, regional, and local). Theoretical materials and case studies are used to gain insight into the issues and questions involved in diplomatic negotiations. Prerequisite: GO103 or 201 or permission of instructor. Instructor: A. Vacs

GO 339 - International Political Economy and the Environment 3 credits
Explores changes in international politics that lend more weight to economic and environmental issues and analyzes the responses to those changes of developed and developing countries and regional, international, and nongovernmental organizations. Students examine different theoretical perspectives on international political economy issues, engage in problem-solving exercises, and conduct a major research paper or prepare for participation in Model United Nations, Model European Union, or other simulation exercises. Prerequisite: GO 103 or permission of instructor. Instructors: R. Ginsberg, A. Vacs

GO 355 - African Politics 3 credits
An analysis of states and societies of Africa during the colonial and independent periods. Topics to be covered include: the effects of colonialism on state structures, social groupings and ethnic identities, the impact of the international political economy on Africa, and the impact of military and civilian governance on domestic politics. Prerequisite: GO 103 or permission of the instructor. (Fulfills Non-Western Culture Requirement. Counts toward the international affairs minor.) Instructor: C. Whann

GO 356 - Africa in International Affairs 3 credits
Africans and outsiders with interests in Africa have been concerned with matters of land, water, plants, and other natural resources. State and nonstate actors have sought to manage, control, or extract them for economic gain or use them as weapons of political control. Topics to be covered in this course include the political economy of conflict; human and environmental control; African cash crop production, mining, and oil drilling; the politics of famine and drought; and regional and international control of water. These topics will be analyzed in the context of theories of international relations and foreign policy making. Prerequisite: GO 103, IA 101 or consent of instructor. (Designated a non-Western culture course.) C. Whann

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History Courses

HI 339 - Ecological Imperialism: The Expansion of Europe and Global Environmental History
An exploration of the ecological impact of European expansion from the sixteenth through the twentieth centuries. This course examines the interaction between Western and non-Western societies and peoples and the impact of this interaction on the relationship between human society and the natural environment. Special attention will be given to the problems surrounding climate change, deforestation, soil erosion and land desiccation, hunting and game preservation, and human population growth within the historical context of European imperialism. Attention will also be given to the legacies and relevance of colonial policies of natural resource management for our understanding of contemporary development and environmental politics and natural resource use. Prerequisites: One course in history and one course in environmental studies, or permission of instructor. Instructor: J. Hodge

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International Affairs Courses

IA 101 - Introduction to International Affairs 3 credits
An introduction to the field of international affairs. The course explores the relationships among the disciplines within international affairs. Examines key concepts that describe and explain international relationships and issues, explores the diversity of perceptions of international issues across national and cultural boundaries, and engages students in in-class global problem-solving exercises. (Fulfills LS2 requirement.). Instructors: IA Faculty

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Liberal Studies Courses

LS2 103 - Science, Technology, and National Security 3 credits
In the second half of the twentieth century, the United States accelerated its dependence upon science and technology in the service of national security. Starting with World War II, basic research, technological achievement, and public policy have delivered nuclear weapons, radar, ballistic missiles, satellite surveillance, and many other technologies that have renewed the means and definition of national security. In the late 1980s, the nation departed the cold war and moved on to a new international order, still influenced heavily by technological accomplishment. Now our nation encounters new challenges in the definition of national security. Nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, environmental safety, and techno-logical competitiveness are examples of challenges that summon new means for assuring national security. Beginning with nuclear weapons, this course explores several examples of scientific and techno-logical achievements that serve national security and examines the public policy that guides and supports the role of these achievements. Prerequisites: QR1 and EN103. Instructor: R. DeSieno, Computer Science

LS2 114 - Crises in Life: Theory and Practice of Mass Extinction 3 credits
Extinction of the dinosaurs and other terrestrial giants, such as the ice age mammoths, has fascinated people for more than a century, resulting in theories of proximal cause ranging from terminal stupidity to death star radiations. Recently it has become evident that mass extinctions are commonplace, possibly even cyclic, in the history of life of Earth and extinction theories have proliferated. This course explores the context within which the reality of extinction events was originally realized, social influences on the formulation of extinction theories, the test of these theories against the record of life's history, and the contemporary role of Homo sapiens as agents of mass extinction. Instructor: R. Lindemann, Geology

LS2 137 - Business and the Natural Environment 3 credits
This course broadly examines and appraises the role of business enterprise in relation to the current, and future, state of the global natural environment. It aims to foster awareness, sensitivity, and literacy regard-ing the major forces and challenges that bear upon these multiple and complex relationships. Environ-mental issues are examined in relation to managerial decision making in the areas of manufacturing, marketing and advertising, strategic planning, general management, and other business disciplines. Topics include a review of sustainable development, industrial ecology, total quality environmental management, "green" marketing, and others. Instructor: J. Kennelly, Business

LS2 146 - Environmental Issues 3 credits
An exploration of the interaction between humans and the environment with special emphasis on differing points of view toward solutions of environ-mental problems. Issues such as population, the environment and technology, global warming, biological diversity, and economic survival will be addressed through the perspectives of economics and ecology. Prerequisite: QR1. Instructor: L. Pezzolesi, Biology

LS2 160 - A Green World: Human/Plant Coevolution 3 credits
This course will deal with the ways humans have derived invaluable resources from plants and fungi such as the agricultural staffs of life and other important commodities (e.g. paper, cotton, coffee). The thrust of the course will be to display how the employment of constantly evolving scientific methodology in plant/fungal studies has led to important, symbiotic interactions between humans, plants, and fungi. Topics to be covered include: humankind's early botanical experimentation, the development of the sciences of botany and mycology, agricultural methods and practice and the diverse methods of applied technologies to production of botanical commodities for human use. Instructor: D. Domozych, Biology

LS2 166 - Human Interaction with the Land - Attitudes and Impacts 3 credits
An introduction to the interrelationships between human attitudes and values and human management of the land and its essential resources. The class will examine the historical patterns of ways in which various societies have substantially modified the natural landscape-sometimes with a sense of stewardship, sometimes with a sense of anthropocentric arrogance. Instructor: K. Nichols, Geology

LS2 207 - Seeds of Change: Perspectives on Global Nutrition 3 credits
A broad survey of the role of the social, economic, political, cultural, nutritional, and environmental factors that influence the food choices of individuals and societies in different parts of the world at different times in history. Topics such as the global interdependence of food production and distribution, the environmental impact of changes in food habits and production techniques, the use of fod as a tool to enforce religious and political beliefs, the worldwide effect of the introduction of modern food technology, etc. will be addressed through analysis of specific case studies. Instructors: U. Bray, Mathematics and Computer Science and V. Narasimhan, Chemistry and Physics

LS2 213 - Nuclear Radiation and the Environment 3 credits
A broad investigation of the environmental impact of human uses of radioactive materials in power generation and nuclear weapons. The course examines the implications of factors such as governmental and societal priorities, national security interests, cultural and political perspectives, and geography in decisions regarding reactor designs, weapons manufacture, and waste disposal, and the consequences for the global environment of these decisions. Principles of nuclear physics appropriate to a scientifically informed discussion of these topics are presented. Instructor: W. Standish, Chemistry and Physics

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Philosophy Courses

PH 225 - Environmental Philosophy
An introduction to philosophical questions regarding the relation of humans to the environment. This course explores both foundational issues such as our understanding of nature and value as well as specific problems in environmental ethics such as animal rights, duty to future generations, and the justification of public policy. In addition to these explorations, students will have the opportunity to apply the knowledge gained in this class by developing an environmental ethics embodied by the institutions and practices that surround us. (Fulfills humanities requirement.) Instructor: W. Lewis

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Sociology Courses

SO 223S - Environmental Sociology
An exploration of social-environment interactions. More than any other species, humans adapt their environments to suit their purposes. This course explores those purposes, including the roles that corporations, public policy, class, gender, and other social factors play in altering the environment and the resulting effects on people and places. Specific topics addressed include the environmental movement, environmental justice, and the political economy of the environment. Prerequisite: SO101 or ES100. Instructor: R. Scarce

SO 331 - Women in Global Economy 3 credits
A comparative analysis of women's roles in global economy. The course considers both how global economic transformations are affecting women and how women affect these processes. Key topics include the affect of economic development on women's participation in various forms of economic activity, including agriculture, micro enterprises, manufacturing, and on gender relations in families throughout the world, with particular emphasis on countries in the Southern Hemisphere. National and regional emphasis may very among and with in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Prerequisite: SO 101 or WS 101. Instructor: C. Berheide

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Women's Studies Courses

WS 210 - Ecofeminism, Women and the Environment
An interdisciplinary exploration of the complex relationship between feminist theory and praxis, and environmental philosophy and activism. Using the idea of "ecofeminism" as its unifying focus, the course examines such national and global issues as deforestation, overpopulation, species extinction, bioregionalism, environmental pollution, habitat loss, development, and agribusiness. Representative perspectives include those based in deep ecology, social ecology, animal and nature rights, human ecology, earth-based spiritualities, "wise use," the "land ethic," conservation, and wildlife management. Instructor: M. Stange
 
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